Volume 6.43 | Nov 14

Immune Regulation News 6.43 November 14, 2014
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Immune Complexes Stimulate CCR7-Dependent Dendritic Cell Migration to Lymph Nodes
Scientists demonstrate that Fcγ receptor engagement by IgG immune complexes (ICs) stimulates dendritic cell (DC) migration from peripheral tissues to the paracortex of draining lymph nodes. In vitro, IC-stimulated mouse and human DCs showed greater directional migration in a chemokine ligand 19 gradient and increased chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) expression. [Nat Med] Abstract
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 Is a Homeostatic Factor in the Central Nervous System Limiting Neuroinflammation and Demyelination
The authors show that developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) contributes to the immune privilege status of the central nervous system. As compared with control mice, Del-1−/− mice displayed enhanced disruption of the blood-brain barrier and increased infiltration of neutrophil granulocytes in the spinal cord in the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, accompanied by elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17. [Mol Psychiatry] Abstract | Press Release

mTOR Kinase Inhibitors Promote Antibody Class Switching via mTORC2 Inhibition
The authors show that high concentrations of ATP-competitive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase inhibitors suppress B-cell proliferation and differentiation, yet lower concentrations that preserve proliferation increase the fraction of B cells undergoing class switching in vitro. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

A Novel Mechanism of B Cell-Mediated Immune Suppression through CD73 Expression and Adenosine Production
Investigators identified a novel population of B cells that expresses CD73 as well as CD39, two ectoenzymes that together catalyze the extracellular dephosphorylation of adenine nucleotides to adenosine. [J Immunol] Abstract

Infiltrating Regulatory B Cells Control Neuroinflammation following Viral Brain Infection
In vivo and in vitro experiments were undertaken to elucidate the role of regulatory B cells in controlling neuroinflammation following viral brain infection. Scientists used multicolor flow cytometry to phenotype lymphocyte subpopulations infiltrating the brain, along with in vitro cocultures to assess their anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory roles. [J Immunol] Abstract

IFN-γ Induces Aberrant CD49b+ NK Cell Recruitment through Regulating CX3CL1: A Novel Mechanism by which IFN-γ Provokes Pregnancy Failure
Findings indicate that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) can significantly increase uterine CX3CL1 expression via activation of the Janus family kinase 2-signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 pathway, thus inducing CD49b+ natural killer (NK) cell uterine homing, and eventually provoke fetal loss. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

PGRN Protects against Colitis Progression in Mice in an IL-10 and TNFR2 Dependent Manner
Investigators sought to determine the role and regulation of progranulin (PGRN) in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Hematopoietic-derived PGRN was critical for protection against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, and lack of PGRN signaling in CD4+ T cells also exacerbated experimental colitis. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Immature Dendritic Cells Convert Anergic Non-Regulatory T Cells into Foxp3 IL-10+ Regulatory T Cells by Engaging CD28 and CTLA-4
Researchers induced peptide-specific anergy in T cells from mice by co-culturing anergic T cells with immature murine dendritic cells (DCs). They found that these anergic, non-suppressive IL-10 Foxp3 CTLA-4+ CD25low Egr2+ T cells, could be converted into suppressive IL-10+ Foxp3 CTLA-4+ CD25high Egr2+ cells resembling type-1 regulatory T cells when stimulated a second time by immature DCs in vitro. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

CD3bright Signals on γδ T Cells Identify IL-17A-Producing Vγ6Vδ1+ T Cells
γδ T cells are recognized as interleukin-17 (IL-17) producers, but based on the level of CD3 expression, researchers now define the remarkable ability of a CD3bright γδ T-cell subset with an effector memory phenotype to rapidly produce IL-17A, but not interferon-γ. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

BDC12-4.1 T-Cell Receptor Transgenic Insulin-Specific CD4 T Cells Are Resistant to In Vitro Differentiation into Functional Foxp3+ T Regulatory Cells
As insulin is the major autoantigen leading to type 1 diabetes, scientists tested the capacity of insulin-specific T-cell receptor transgenic CD4+ T cells of the BDC12-4.1 clone to convert into Foxp3+ induced T regulatory cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Old Questions, New Tools: Does Next-Generation Sequencing Hold the Key to Unraveling Intestinal B-Cell Responses?
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) offers a novel approach to study B-cell responses, which might substantially enhance our tool box to answer key questions in the field and to take the next steps toward therapeutic exploitation of the mucosal B-cell system. The authors discuss the potential, challenges, and emerging solutions for gut B-cell repertoire analysis by NGS. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
AbbVie’s Leadership in Immunology Featured with New Data on Investigational Medicines and HUMIRA® (Adalimumab)
AbbVie announced that data from 37 abstracts related to HUMIRA®, rheumatologic diseases and investigational medicines will be presented. [Press release from AbbVie Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 2014 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Annual Meeting, Boston] Press Release

Innovimmune to Present Superior Preclinical Therapeutic Efficacy Results in Rheumatoid Arthritis of Its INV-17 RORγt Inhibitor Program
Innovimmune Biotherapeutics Holding, LLC will present data demonstrating successful treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in a murine collagen-induced arthritis model with its proprietary oral small molecule retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) modulators from their INV-17 portfolio. [Press release from Innovimmune Biotherapeutics Holding, LLC (GlobeNewswire Inc.) discussing research to be presented at the 2014 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Annual Meeting, Boston] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Cell Source’s Megadose Drug Combination Receives Regulatory Approval in Italy to Commence Human Clinical Trials
Cell Source, Inc. announced its Megadose Drug Combination has been cleared for human clinical trials in Italy. Cell Source’s proprietary Megadose Drug Combination is expected to increase bone marrow transplantation success and survival. [Cell Source, Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

Stellar Biotechnologies and Araclon Biotech Sign Exclusive KLH Supply Agreement for Clinical Trials in Alzheimer’s Active Immunotherapies
Stellar Biotechnologies, Inc. and Araclon Biotech SL announced that the companies have executed a definitive exclusive supply agreement to meet Araclon’s Phase II/III clinical trial requirements for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) used in Araclon’s active immunotherapies against Alzheimer’s disease. [Stellar Biotechnologies, Inc.] Press Release

Advaxis Submits Investigational New Drug Application for Phase I/II Study of ADXS-HPV and MedImmune’s MEDI4736 for the Treatment of HPV-Associated Cervical and Head & Neck Cancer
Advaxis, Inc. announced that the Company has submitted an Investigational New Drug application to the United States Food and Drug Administration to conduct a Phase I/II study of ADXS-HPV alone or in combination with MedImmune’s investigational anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, MEDI4736, for the treatment of advanced, recurrent or refractory human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer and HPV-associated head and neck cancer. [Advaxis, Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW The 4th NIF (Network of Immunology Frontier) Winter School on Advanced Immunology
January 18-23, 2015
Singapore, Singapore

NEW Keystone Symposium – Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Reunited
March 8-13, 2015
Montreal, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Research Technician – Cancer and Inflammatory Diseases (Qu Biologics Inc.)

NEW Research Scientist – Cancer and Inflammatory Diseases (Qu Biologics Inc.)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Immunotherapy (Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute)

Head of Cellular and Molecular Therapies Laboratory (NHS Blood & Transplant)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immune and Pathogenic Mechanisms during Alphavirus Infection (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immune Responses to HSV (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Genetic and Epigenetic Regulatory Networks in Protective Immune Responses (Washington University School of Medicine)

PhD Studentship – Cancer Immunology (Cardiff University)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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