Volume 6.39 | Oct 17

Immune Regulation News 6.39 October 17, 2014
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Tipping Points in T-Cell Differentiation
Roquin regulates the activity of helper T cells. In its absence, T cells undergo spontaneous activation, which leads to autoimmune or autoinflammatory disease. Researchers show that roquin regulates the differentiation of a subset of T helper cells called TH17, and have uncovered the mechanism that underlies its effect on this process. [Press release from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich discussing online prepublication in Nature Immunology] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Identification of the Endogenous Ligands of Natural Killer T Cells Reveals the Presence of Mammalian α-Linked Glycosylceramides
Scientists demonstrate that mammalian immune cells produce constitutively very small quantities of
α-glycosylceramides, which are the major endogenous ligands of natural killer T cells. [Immunity]
Full Article | Press Release

Autophagy Gene Atg16l1 Prevents Lethal T Cell Alloreactivity Mediated by Dendritic Cells
Scientists found that Atg16L1 deficiency leads to an exacerbated graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in a mouse model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Atg16L1-deficient allo-HSCT recipients with GvHD displayed increased T cell proliferation due to increased dendritic cell numbers and costimulatory molecule expression. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

A Self-Adjuvanting Vaccine Induces Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes that Suppress Allergy
The authors present a vaccine consisting of an allergen-derived peptide conjugated to a prodrug of the natural killer-like T cell agonist ​α-galactosylceramide, which is highly effective in reducing inflammation in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. [Nat Chem Biol] Abstract | Press Release

Inflammation-Driven Carcinogenesis Is Mediated through ​STING
Investigators demonstrate that mutagenic DMBA, cisplatin and ​etoposide induce nuclear DNA leakage into the cytosol that intrinsically activates ​stimulator of interferon genes (​STING)-dependent cytokine production. Inflammatory cytokine levels are subsequently augmented in a ​STING-dependent extrinsic manner by infiltrating phagocytes purging dying cells. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Spleen Supports a Pool of Innate-Like B Cells in White Adipose Tissue that Protects against Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance
Researchers examined innate-like B cells in visceral white adipose tissue and the relationship of these cells with their counterparts in the peritoneal cavity and spleen during diet-induced obesity in mice.
[Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract

Suppression of Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity by IL-37 via Induction of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells
The authors reveal that dendritic cells expressing IL-37 are tolerogenic, thereby impairing activation of effector T-cell responses and inducing regulatory T cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Loss of STAT3 in Murine NK Cells Enhances NK Cell-Dependent Tumor Surveillance
Researchers investigated the function of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 in natural killer (NK) cells with Stat3Δ/ΔNcr1-iCreTg mice, whose NK cells lack STAT3. In various in vivo models of hematological diseases, loss of STAT3 in NK cells enhances tumor surveillance. [Blood]
Abstract | Press Release

Combined Inhibition of TNFα and IL-17 as Therapeutic Opportunity for Treatment in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Development and Characterization of a Novel Bispecific Antibody
Single/combined neutralizing antibodies against TNFα and IL-17 were used to interrogate in vitro cytokine responses and in vivo development of arthritis, bone and cartilage destruction in TNFα-transgenic mice. Bi-specific anti-TNFα/IL-17 antibodies were designed and tested for their potential to block cytokine responses in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes. [Arthritis Rheumatol] Abstract

An MHC II-Dependent Activation Loop between Adipose Tissue Macrophages and CD4+ T Cells Controls Obesity-Induced Inflammation
Investigators examined whether interactions between adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and CD4+ T cells contribute to adipose tissue metainflammation. Intravital microscopy identified dynamic antigen-dependent interactions between ATMs and T cells in visceral fat. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Macrophage Matrix Metalloproteinase-12 Dampens Inflammation and Neutrophil Influx in Arthritis
Researchers used a proteomic protease substrate discovery approach, terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates, to analyze the role of the macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase-12 in inflammation.
[Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Direct Incorporation of the NKT-Cell Activator α-Galactosylceramide into a Recombinant Listeria monocytogenes Improves Breast Cancer Vaccine Efficacy
Researchers analyzed whether the natural killer T cell-activating glycolipid α-galactosylceramide could overcome immune suppression and improve vaccination against metastatic breast cancer. [Br J Cancer] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Atypical MHC Class II-Expressing Antigen-Presenting Cells: Can Anything Replace a Dendritic Cell?
The authors describe the key characteristics that define an antigen-presenting cell by examining the functions of dendritic cells. They then examine the functions of the hematopoietic cells and non-hematopoietic cells that can express MHC class II molecules and that have been suggested to represent ‘atypical’ antigen-presenting cells. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

NK Cell Receptor Imbalance and NK Cell Dysfunction in HBV Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma
The authors focus on the role of natural killer (NK) cell receptors in anti-tumor immune responses in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. They discuss specifically how tumor cells evade attack from NK cells and how emerging understanding of NK receptors may aid the development of novel treatments for HCC. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
MOLOGEN AG Presents EnanDIM: A New Generation of Immunomodulators
MOLOGEN has presented preclinical data on its EnanDIM technology. EnanDIM represents a new generation of the company’s immunoactivating TLR-9 agonists that is expected to trigger a broad immune activation while being well tolerated. [Press release from MOLOGEN AG discussing research presented at the 10th Annual Meeting of the Oligonucleotide Therapeutics Society (OTS), San Diego] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Aduro Expands Collaboration with Johnson & Johnson Innovation and Janssen for Lung Cancer Immunotherapies
Aduro BioTech, Inc. announced that it has entered into its second agreement with Janssen Biotech, Inc. granting an exclusive worldwide license to certain product candidates engineered for the treatment of lung cancer and certain other cancers based on its novel LADD immunotherapy platform. [Aduro BioTech, Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release

Batu Biologics Awarded Exclusive License from University of California San Diego for Drug that Stimulates Immune System to Kill Cancer
Batu Biologics announced the signing of a license agreement with the Regents of the University of California, granting exclusive rights to novel peptide drugs developed at UC San Diego that have been proven to stimulate cancer-killing immune responses. [Batu Biologics, Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Immune Homeostasis and Inflammatory Disease: A Herrenhausen Symposium
November 6-8, 2014
Hanover, Germany

NEW Keystone Symposium – PI 3-Kinase Signaling Pathways in Disease (J2)
January 13-18, 2015
Vancouver, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Research Fellow – Immunology (Trinity College Dublin)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center – Harvard Medical School)

PhD Position – Immunoregulation (Jena University Hospital)

PhD Student – Calcium and Redox Signaling in Immune and Skin Cells (University of Saarland)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Development of Autoimmunity and Cancer (Mount Sinai Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Immune Response to Cancer (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Western New England University)

Faculty Positions – Cancer Immunotherapy and Tumor Microenvironment (NYU Langone Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Transplantation Aspects of Hepatocytes Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (INSERM UMR 1064)

PhD Studentship – Cancer Immunology (Cardiff University)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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