Volume 8.12 | Apr 8

Immune Regulation News 8.12 April 8, 2016
Immune Regulation News
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The TAM Family Receptor Tyrosine Kinase TYRO3 Is a Negative Regulator of Type 2 Immunity
Researchers showed that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by Tyro3 in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. [Science] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
IRF8 Transcription-Factor-Dependent Classical Dendritic Cells Are Essential for Intestinal T Cell Homeostasis
Researchers showed that mice lacking IRF8 transcription-factor-dependent dendritic cells (DCs) had reduced numbers of T cells in the small intestine (SI), but not large intestine, including an almost complete absence of SI CD8αβ+ and CD4+CD8αα+ T cells; the latter requiring β8 integrin expression by migratory IRF8 dependent CD103+CD11b DCs. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Arginase 1 Is an Innate Lymphoid-Cell-Intrinsic Metabolic Checkpoint Controlling Type 2 Inflammation
Investigators demonstrated that expression of the enzyme arginase-1 during acute or chronic lung inflammation is a conserved trait of mouse and human group 2 innate lymphoid cells. [Nat Immunol]
Abstract | Press Release

Adipose Natural Killer Cells Regulate Adipose Tissue Macrophages to Promote Insulin Resistance in Obesity
Investigators showed that natural killer (NK) cells in adipose tissue play an important role. High-fat diet increased NK cell numbers and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, notably TNFα, in epididymal, but not subcutaneous, fat depots. [Cell Metab] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Androgen Receptor Antagonists Compromise T Cell Response against Prostate Cancer Leading to Early Tumor Relapse
Researchers showed that orchiectomy synergizes with immunotherapy, whereas the more widely used treatment of medical androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) involving androgen receptor antagonists suppresses immunotherapy. They observed that the use of medical ADT could unexpectedly impair the adaptive immune responses through interference with initial T cell priming rather than in the reactivation or expansion phases. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Neutrophil-Specific Deletion of the CARD9 Gene Expression Regulator Suppresses Autoantibody-Induced Inflammation In Vivo
Investigators showed that neutrophil CARD9 mediates pro-inflammatory chemokine/cytokine but not lipid mediator release during non-infectious inflammation. Genetic deficiency of CARD9 suppresses autoantibody-induced arthritis and dermatitis in mice. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Nuclear Transfer nTreg Model Reveals Fate-Determining TCR-β and Novel Peripheral nTreg Precursors
On RAG1-deficient background, scientists found that monoclonal FoxP3+ CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells developed in the thymus in the absence of other T cells. Adoptive transfer experiments revealed that the thymic niche is not a limiting factor in “natural-arising” Treg (nTreg) development. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Press Release

Vaccination with Necroptotic Cancer Cells Induces Efficient Anti-Tumor Immunity
The authors report that necroptotic cancer cells release damage-associated molecular patterns and promote maturation of dendritic cells, the cross-priming of cytotoxic T cells, and the production of IFN-γ in response to tumor antigen stimulation. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Manipulating TLR Signaling Increases the Anti-Tumor T Cell Response Induced by Viral Cancer Therapies
Scientists sought to influence the type and level of immune response raised after oncolytic vaccinia therapy through manipulation of TLR signaling. Vaccinia naturally activates TLR2, associated with an antibody response, whereas a CTL response is associated with TLR3-TRIF-signaling pathways. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

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T Cell Receptor Signaling in the Control of Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Function
Scientists discuss the emerging understanding of T cell receptor-guided differentiation of regulatory T cells in the context of their function in health and disease. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Synthetic Glycolipid Activators of Natural Killer T Cells as Immunotherapeutic Agents
The authors discuss the design of synthetic glycolipid activators for invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, their impact on adaptive immune responses and their use to modulate iNKT cell responses to improve immunity against infections and cancer. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

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Salmonella-Based Oral Vaccine a Promising Therapy for Preventing Type 1 Diabetes
A combined vaccine therapy including live Salmonella is a safe and effective way to prevent diabetes in mice and may point to future human therapies. [Press release from the Endocrine Society (Newswise, Inc.) discussing research presented at the 98th Annual Meeting & Exposition of the Endocrine Society (ENDO), Boston] Press Release

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Helmsley Charitable Trust Awards $2.1 Million to Penn, Stanford and Seattle Children’s Research Institute to Explore Cell-Based Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes
The Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Program of The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust has announced $2.1 million in grants to support research toward the creation of new T1D-specific cell therapies that could help delay or halt the progression of the disease. [The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust] Press Release

UChicago and Evelo Biosciences Sign Licensing Deal for Microbiome-Based Cancer Immunotherapy
Evelo Biosciences and the University of Chicago announced that they have entered into an exclusive worldwide license agreement to develop and commercialize a microbiome-based cancer immunotherapy. [Evelo Biosciences] Press Release

Ludwig Cancer Research and CRI Initiate Clinical Trial of Immunotherapy for Ovarian Cancer
Ludwig Cancer Research and the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) have launched a Phase I/II clinical trial of combination immunotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer. [Ludwig Cancer Research] Press Release

Type 1 Diabetes Cell Therapy Trial Enrolls First Patient at Sanford
A clinical trial studying the body’s ability to type fight 1 diabetes using cell therapy has used the method on its first participant. “The Sanford Project: T-Rex Study” is a collaborative study between Sanford Health and Caladrius Biosciences, Inc., for adolescents with newly onset type 1 diabetes. [Sanford Health] Press Release
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Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases (ASID) Annual Scientific Meeting
April 20-23, 2016
Launceston, Australia

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NEW Engineering Project Lead (Cytonome)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immune Informatics (University of Oslo)

NEW PhD Positions – Cancer Immune Metabolism (University of Erlangen-Nuernberg)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Single Cell Immunologist (Berkeley Lights, Inc.)

Principal Scientist – (UCB Pharma Ltd.)

Postdoctoral Researchers – Tumor Immunology and Cancer Immunotherapy (University of California, Los Angeles)

Postdoctoral Position or Research Scientist – Mucosal Immunology (Qu Biologics)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Clinical Immunology (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Autoimmune, Inflammatory and Demyelinating Diseases (Queen’s University Belfast)

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