Volume 8.05 | Feb 12

Immune Regulation News 8.05 February 12, 2016
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Researchers Identify Factor that May Trigger Type 1 Diabetes
Scientists conducted experiments to analyze fractions of beta cells that contain antigen for autoreactive CD4 T cells in order to identify autoantigens in type 1 diabetes. They discovered a new class of antigens that consist of insulin fragments fused to peptides of other proteins present in beta cells. [Press release from the University of Colorado School of Medicine discussing publication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Interleukin-35 Limits Anti-Tumor Immunity
Using an IL-35 reporter mouse, investigators observed substantial enrichment of interleukin-35 (IL-35)+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in tumors. Neutralization with an IL-35-specific antibody or Treg cell-restricted deletion of IL-35 production limited tumor growth in multiple murine models of human cancer. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Immunogenic Chemotherapy Sensitizes Tumors to Checkpoint Blockade Therapy
Using lung adenocarcinoma mouse models, researchers showed that autochthonous tumors that lacked T cell infiltration and resisted current treatment options could be successfully sensitized to host antitumor T cell immunity when appropriately selected immunogenic drugs were used. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Apoptotic Epithelial Cells Control the Abundance of Treg Cells at Barrier Surfaces
The authors found that apoptotic epithelial cells negatively regulated the commensal-stimulated proliferation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Gut commensals stimulated CX3CR1+CD103CD11b+ dendritic cells to produce interferon-β, which augmented the proliferation of Treg cells in the intestine. [Nat Immunol]
Abstract

Neutrophils Orchestrate Post-Myocardial Infarction Healing by Polarizing Macrophages towards a Reparative Phenotype
Scientists showed that neutrophil-depleted mice subjected to myocardial infarction had worsened cardiac function, increased fibrosis, and progressively developed heart failure. They identified neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in the neutrophil secretome as a key inducer of macrophages with high capacity to engulf apoptotic cells. [Eur Heart J] Abstract | Press Release

Endomucin Prevents Leukocyte–Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Has a Critical Role under Resting and Inflammatory Conditions
Scientists showed that endomucin abrogation on quiescent endothelial cells enabled neutrophils to adhere firmly, via LFA-1-mediated binding to ICAM-1 constitutively expressed by endothelial cells. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

NLRC5 Shields T Lymphocytes from NK-Cell-Mediated Elimination under Inflammatory Conditions
Using T-cell-specific Nlrc5-deficient mice, researchers showed that NK cells surprisingly break tolerance even towards ‘self’ Nlrc5-deficient T cells under inflammatory conditions. [Nat Commun] Full Article

CD44+ Cells in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Suppress T Cell-Mediated Immunity by Selective Constitutive and Inducible Expression of PD-L1
Using primary human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck tumor samples and patient-derived xenografts, the authors examined the phenotypes of subsets of tumor cells and investigated mechanisms regulating their immunogenicity. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract | Press Release

Genome-Wide Analysis Identifies Bcl6-Controlled Regulatory Networks during T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation
Researchers defined B-cell lymphoma 6 protein (Bcl6) target genes in T follicular helper cells by analyzing genome-wide Bcl6 occupancy together with transcriptome profiling. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Satb1 Overexpression Drives Tumor-Promoting Activities in Cancer-Associated Dendritic Cells
Using a conditional knockout mouse, researchers found that special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (Satb1) is required for normal differentiation of conventional dendritic cells. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

mTOR Masters Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Mice with Allografts or Tumors
Rapamycin significantly decreased the cell number and the immunosuppressive ability on T cells of CD11b+ Ly6Chigh monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in both allo-grafts-transplanted and tumor-bearing mice respectively. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Trans-Presentation of Interleukin-15 by Interleukin-15 Receptor Alpha Is Dispensable for the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes
Investigators showed that interleukin-15 (IL-15), but not IL-15 receptor α, is required for the development of spontaneous and virus-induced type 1 diabetes, viral clearance and for antigen cross-presentation to CD8+ T lymphocytes. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
T Cell Migration, Search Strategies and Mechanisms
The authors discuss how the combined effects of T cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic forces influence T cell motility patterns in the context of highly complex tissues that are filled with other cells involved in parallel motility. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation research field.

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INDUSTRY NEWS
SITC Offering Fellowships Nearing $300,000 to Support Next Generation of Cancer Immunotherapy Researchers
The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) is presenting the next generation of cancer immunotherapy researchers four, one-year fellowship opportunities with total award nearing $300,000. [Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer] Press Release

Regeneron Joins Human Vaccines Project to Improve Global Disease Prevention and Treatment
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. announced that it has joined the Human Vaccines Project, a public-private partnership to help discover and develop new vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious diseases and cancer. [Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc.] Press Release

Immune Design Announces Positive Topline Data from Three Phase I Clinical Trials of Immuno-Oncology Product Candidates
Immune Design reported positive topline data from three ongoing Phase I oncology studies that support continued development of its two primary in vivo immuno-oncology product candidates, CMB305 and G100. [Immune Design] Press Release

Myasthenia Gravis: CuraVac Launches Phase Ib Study in Patients
CuraVac Inc. announced that it has launched a Phase Ib study of its lead program, CVMG01. CV-MG01 is an immunotherapy developed for the treatment and potential cure of myasthenia gravis, a debilitating autoimmune disease. [CuraVac Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Malaysian Association for Cell Therapy (MACT) 2016 Scientific Symposium
April 2, 2016
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Professor – Dermatology with Special Interest in Allergology and Immunology (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Positions – Innate Immunity and Autoimmunity (UT Southwestern Medical Center)

Faculty Positions – Immunology (University of Texas Health Science Center)

Senior Scientist – Immunology (Bavarian Nordic GmbH)

Research Associate – Treg Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis (University College London)

Research Associate – T Cell Therapy for Hematological Malignancies (University College London)

Assistant or Associate Professor – Immunity and Tolerance (Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell Therapy (Toronto Western Hospital)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University)


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