Volume 8.04 | Feb 5

Immune Regulation News 8.04 February 5, 2016
Immune Regulation News
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Typical Food Triggers Creation of Regulatory T Cells
Despite the increasing incidence and severity of food allergies, the details on how immune tolerance to dietary antigens is normally established remain largely unknown. Scientists uncovered one of the key mechanisms in the small intestine that triggers this process. [Press release from the Institute for Basic Science discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
T Follicular Helper Cell Plasticity Shapes Pathogenic T Helper 2 Cell-Mediated Immunity to Inhaled House Dust Mite
Scientists found that the initial exposure to house dust mite (HDM) did not lead to T helper 2 (Th2) cell development but instead promoted the formation of interleukin-4 (IL-4)-committed T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Following challenge exposure to HDM, Tfh cells differentiated into IL-4 and IL-13 double-producing Th2 cells that accumulated in the lung and recruited eosinophils. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

MicroRNAs 24 and 27 Suppress Allergic Inflammation and Target a Network of Regulators of T Helper 2 Cell-Associated Cytokine Production
A functional screen of individual microRNAs (miRNAs) in primary T cells uncovered multiple miRNAs that inhibited T helper-2 (Th2) cell differentiation. Mice lacking both clusters in T cells displayed increased Th2 cell responses and tissue pathology in a mouse model of asthma. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

SHARPIN Controls Regulatory T Cells by Negatively Modulating the T Cell Antigen Receptor Complex
Scientists found that SHARPIN deficiency resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of and defective function of regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Transfer of SHARPIN-sufficient Treg cells into SHARPIN-deficient mice considerably alleviated their systemic inflammation. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

CD4+ T Cell Anergy Prevents Autoimmunity and Generates Regulatory T Cell Precursors
Investigators found that anergy was selectively induced in fetal antigen–specific maternal CD4+ T cells during pregnancy. A naturally occurring subpopulation of anergic polyclonal CD4+ T cells, enriched for self antigen–specific T cell antigen receptors, was also present in healthy hosts. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Toll-Like Receptor-5 Agonist, Entolimod, Suppresses Metastasis and Induces Immunity by Stimulating an NK-Dendritic-CD8+ T-Cell Axis
Investigators deciphered the molecular and cellular events underlying the metastasis suppressive activity of entolimod, a clinical stage Toll-like receptor 5 agonist that activates NF-κB–, AP-1–, and STAT3–driven immunomodulatory signaling pathways specifically within the liver. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Full Article

Functional Evidence for TCR-Intrinsic Specificity for MHCII
Researchers asked if increasing the frequency of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase-associated CD4 molecules in T-cell hybridomas would allow for the detection of subthreshold T-cell receptor (TCR)–major histocompatibility complex (MHC) interactions. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Donor-Derived Exosomes Induce Specific Regulatory T Cells to Suppress Immune Inflammation in the Allograft Heart
Researchers aimed to induce the donor antigen specific regulatory T cells to inhibit the immune inflammation in the allograft heart. Results showed that the donor antigen-specific T helper pattern inflammation was observed in the allograft hearts; the inflammation was inhibited by immunizing the recipient mice with the donor-derived exosomes. [Sci Rep] Full Article

miR-150 Regulates Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance by Controlling B Cell Functions
The authors report that miR-150 modulates adipose tissue function by controlling activation of B cells and their interactions with other immune cells. Using purified cell populations, they found that enhanced proinflammatory activation of adipose tissue T cells and macrophages was due to miR-150KO B cells action but not cell-autologous mechanisms. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Treatment of Uveitis by In Situ Administration of Ex Vivo–Activated Polyclonal Regulatory T Cells
Researchers showed that polyclonal regulatory T (Treg) cells suppressed uveitis in mice as efficiently as Ag-specific Treg cells but only when preactivated and administered in the vitreous. [J Immunol] Abstract

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Anti-CD73 in Cancer Immunotherapy: Awakening New Opportunities
Scientists discuss the link between CD73 and the onset, development, and spread of tumors, highlighting the potential value of this molecule as a drug target and a novel biomarker in the context of personalized cancer therapy. [Trends Cancer] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation research field.
Data on Immunology Effects of Provectus Biopharmaceuticals PV-10 in Colon Cancer Presented
Provectus Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. announced data discussing the immunologic effects of PV-10 on colon cancer cells were presented. [Press release from Provectus Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research presented at the 11th Annual Academic Surgical Congress, Jacksonville] Press Release

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Dana-Farber Cancer Institute’s Belfer Center Announces Immuno-Oncology Research Collaboration with Array BioPharma
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute announced an immuno-oncology collaboration with potential applicability in a wide range of oncology indications with Array BioPharma. The research team at Dana-Farber will work with Array scientists on novel immune-oncology targets with the goal of bringing innovative medicines to patients. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute] Press Release

Adaptimmune and GSK Expand Strategic Immunotherapy Collaboration
Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc and GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) announced that the companies have expanded the terms of their strategic collaboration agreement to accelerate Adaptimmune’s lead clinical cancer program, an affinity enhanced T-cell immunotherapy (GSK3377794) targeting NY-ESO-1, toward pivotal trials in synovial sarcoma. [Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc] Press Release

Terry Fox Award Helps Ottawa Researcher Develop Next-Generation Cancer Immunovirotherapy
The Terry Fox Research Institute has awarded Dr. Guy Ungerechts (The Ottawa Hospital and the University of Ottawa) a $450,000 New Investigator grant to develop innovative new treatments to destroy cancer cells and stimulate a patient’s own immune system to attack tumors, while leaving healthy tissues unharmed. [Terry Fox Research Institute] Press Release

OSE Pharma Announces U.S. Initiation of Atalante 1, the Company’s Global, Pivotal Phase III Trial for Tedopi® Immunotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
OSE Pharma SA announced initiation in the United States of its Phase III clinical trial, Atalante 1. This global, pivotal trial will evaluate Tedopi®, the company’s lead product, for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. [OSE Pharma SA] Press Release
White House Proposes $1 Billion for Cancer ‘Moonshot’
The White House will propose spending close to $1 billion over the next two years on a “moonshot” to fight cancer. President Barack Obama will ask Congress for $755 million for fiscal year 2017, and will try to spend $195 million this year to get things started. [NBC News] Editorial

Worries about Brain Damage in Infants Linked to Zika Leads WHO to Declare a Public Health Emergency
Increasingly strong links between the spread of Zika virus and microcephaly in newborns led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. [ScienceInsider] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Advanced Cell Therapy Symposium
March 14-15, 2016
London, United Kingdom

NEW International Conference on Human & Translational Immunology
September 16-21, 2016
Rhodes, Greece

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)

NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Innate Immunity and Autoimmunity (UT Southwestern Medical Center)

NEW Faculty Positions – Immunology (University of Texas Health Science Center)

NEW Senior Scientist – Immunology (Bavarian Nordic GmbH)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Treg Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis (University College London)

Research Associate – T Cell Therapy for Hematological Malignancies (University College London)

Assistant or Associate Professor – Immunity and Tolerance (Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell Therapy (Toronto Western Hospital)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Indiana University)

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