Volume 7.45 | Nov 27

Immune Regulation News 7.45 November 27, 2015
Immune Regulation News
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A Cellular Symphony Responsible for Autoimmune Disease
To uncover what molecular circuits drive the pathogenic potential of Th17 cells, scientists examined Th17 heterogeneity, one cell at a time. [Press release from the Broad Institute discussing online prepublications in Cell] Press Release | Abstract 1 | Graphical Abstract 1 | Abstract 2 | Graphical Abstract 2
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Interferon and IL-27 Antagonize the Function of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Type 2 Innate Immune Responses
Scientists found that tissue-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) proliferated in situ without migrating during inflammatory responses. Both type I and type II interferons and interleukin 27 (IL-27) suppressed ILC2 function in a manner dependent on the transcription factor STAT1. [Nat Immunol]
Abstract | Press Release

Type I Interferon Restricts Type 2 Immunopathology through the Regulation of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells
Researchers found that deficiency in signaling via type I interferon receptor led to deregulated activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells and infection-associated type 2 immunopathology. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Trastuzumab Emtansine (T-DM1) Renders HER2+ Breast Cancer Highly Susceptible to CTLA-4/PD-1 Blockade
Investigators showed that drug resistance can be overcome with trastuzumab emtansine, an antibody-drug conjugate that combines the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeting ability of trastuzumab with a cytotoxic drug, which the antibody delivers directly to the tumor. [Sci Transl Med]
Abstract | Press Release

Neutrophil-Derived Microvesicles Enter Cartilage and Protect the Joint in Inflammatory Arthritis
Neutrophils play an active role in protecting cartilage from damage by dispatching microvesicles (MVs) to do their bidding in this tissue they otherwise can’t access. In two different mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, MVs delivered locally entered the cartilage, prevented the loss of proteoglycans, and maintained cartilage integrity. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

PDL1 Regulation by p53 via miR-34
Investigators confirmed that PDL1 is a direct target of miR-34 with western blotting and luciferase assays and used a syngeneic mouse model to deliver miR-34a–loaded liposomes plus radiotherapy and assessed PDL1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. [J Natl Cancer Inst] Abstract | Press Release

Autophagy Is Dispensable for B-Cell Development but Essential for Humoral Autoimmune Responses
Scientists showed that autophagy is dispensable for pro- to pre-B cell transition, but necessary at a basal level to maintain normal numbers of peripheral B cells. It appears non-essential for B-cell activation under B-cell receptor stimulation but required for their survival after lipopolysaccharide stimulation that drives plasmablast differentiation and for specific IgM production after immunization. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

PPARγ Antagonist Attenuates Mouse Immune-Mediated Bone Marrow Failure by Inhibition of T Cell Function
To examine the role of adipocytes in bone marrow failure, researchers investigated peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, utilizing an antagonist of this factor called bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ester. In vitro, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ester suppressed activation and proliferation, and reduced phospholipase C gamma 1 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 expression, as well as inhibited calcium flux in T cells. [Haematologica] Abstract | Full Article

A Novel Cyclic Helix B Peptide Inhibits Dendritic Cell Maturation during Amelioration of Acute Kidney Graft Rejection through Jak-2/STAT3/SOCS1
Scientists investigated the effects of cyclic helix B peptide (CHBP) on dendritic cells (DCs) in a rat renal transplantation model. Five successive treatment doses of CHBP after transplantation significantly ameliorated acute rejection with lower histological injury, apoptosis and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell infiltration in renal allografts. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

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Regulation of Macrophage Development and Function in Peripheral Tissues
The authors discuss how recent insights into macrophage ontogeny and macrophage–stroma interactions contribute to the understanding of the crosstalk that shapes macrophage function and the maintenance of organ integrity. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Combination Cancer Immunotherapies Tailored to the Tumor Microenvironment
Investigators discuss the stratification of the tumor microenvironment according to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression in the tumor, and how this stratification enables the design of optimal combination cancer therapies tailored to target different tumor microenvironments. [Nat Rev Clin Oncol] Abstract

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New Center Seeks Therapies to Boost Body’s Immune System
A new Center for Innate Immunity and Immune Disease at UW Medicine seeks to become a world leader in finding therapies to regulate the body’s defense system and fend off a wide variety of diseases. [UW Health Sciences] Press Release

Brickell Biotech Secures Exclusive World-Wide Rights to a Novel Class of RORγ Inhibitors for Psoriasis and Other Autoimmune Diseases
Brickell Biotech, Inc. announced that it has secured the exclusive world-wide rights to a series of novel retinoic acid–related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (RORγ) inhibitors from Orca Pharmaceuticals and New York University. [Brickell Biotech, Inc.] Press Release

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May 25-28, 2016
Singapore, Singapore

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NEW B-Cell Immunologist (Berkeley Lights, Inc.)

NEW Associate Professor – Immuno-Engineering (University of Chicago)

Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technician – Preclinical and Translational Research (Qu Biologics Inc.)

Scientist – Preclinical Immunology (Kanyos Bio)

Senior Research Fellow – Cancer Biology/Immunology (Plymouth University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Regulatory Functions of Immune-Checkpoint Proteins (Medical College of Wisconsin)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Metastatic Breast Cancer (Purdue University Center for Cancer Research)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Biology (The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center)

Professor – Immunology (La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology)

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