Volume 7.42 | Nov 6

Immune Regulation News 7.42 November 6, 2015
Immune Regulation News
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Gut Bacteria Can Dramatically Amplify Cancer Immunotherapy
By introducing a particular strain of bacteria into the digestive tracts of mice with melanoma, researchers were able to boost the ability of the animal’s immune systems to attack tumor cells. [Press release from the University of Chicago Medical Center discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
GFP-Specific CD8 T Cells Enable Targeted Cell Depletion and Visualization of T-Cell Interactions
Investigators generated a mouse bearing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-specific CD8+ T cells. Transfer of the T cells into EGFP reporter animals can be used to kill EGFP-expressing cells, allowing selective depletion of desired cell types, or to interrogate T-cell interactions with specific populations. [Nat Biotechnol] Abstract | Press Release

Anticancer Immunotherapy by CTLA-4 Blockade Relies on the Gut Microbiota
Scientists found that the antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade depend on distinct Bacteroides species. In mice and patients, T cell responses specific for B. thetaiotaomicron or B. fragilis were associated with the efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Transcription Factor Nr4a1 Couples Sympathetic and Inflammatory Cues in CNS-Recruited Macrophages to Limit Neuroinflammation
Researchers found that the transcription factor Nr4a1 regulated the production of norepinephrine in macrophages and thereby limited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells License Dendritic Cells to Potentiate Memory TH2 Cell Responses
Researchers demonstrated that group 2 innate lymphoid (ILC2) cells have a crucial role in memory T helper 2 (TH2) cell responses, with targeted depletion of ILC2 cells profoundly impairing TH2 cell localization to the lungs and skin of sensitized mice after allergen re-challenge. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

BAG3 Promotes Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Growth by Activating Stromal Macrophages
Investigators report that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells secrete BAG3, which binds and activates macrophages, inducing their activation and the secretion of PDAC supporting factors. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Transcriptomics Identify CD9 as a Marker of Murine IL-10-Competent Regulatory B Cells
Scientists performed transcriptome analysis of IL-10-expressing B cells to identify key regulators for regulatory B cell biogenesis and function and identify CD9, a tetraspanin-family transmembrane protein, as a key surface marker for most mouse IL-10+ B cells and their progenitors. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

MicroRNA-223 Regulates the Differentiation and Function of Intestinal Dendritic Cells and Macrophages by Targeting C/EBPβ
The molecular mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and responses of intestinal dendritic cells and macrophages were poorly understood. Researchers identified microRNA miR-223 as a key molecule for regulating these processes. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Epithelial Cell-Derived Micro RNA-146a Generates Interleukin-10-Producing Monocytes to Inhibit Nasal Allergy
Investigators tested whether micro RNA (miR)-146a induces the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in monocytes (Mos). Nasal epithelial cell-derived miR-146a up regulated the expression of IL-10 in Mos. The inducible IL-10+ Mos showed an immune suppressor effect on the activities of CD4+ effector T cells and the T helper 2 polarization in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Memory of Tolerance and Induction of Regulatory T Cells by Erythrocyte-Targeted Antigens
Investigators characterized the phenotypic signatures of CD8+ T cells undergoing tolerance in response to soluble and erythrocyte-targeted antigen. Signaling through programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1, but not through cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, was shown to be required for antigen-specific T cell deletion, anergy and expression of regulatory markers. [Sci Rep] Full Article

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Novel Immunotherapies in Lymphoid Malignancies
The authors review the background and development of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, blinatumomab, and nivolumab immunotherapy platforms; address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy; and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. [Nat Rev Clin Oncol] Abstract

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Immune Design Presents Preclinical Data on G100 and ZVex™ in Combination with Check Point Inhibitors
Immune Design announced new preclinical data showing that a dendritic-cell targeting lentiviral vector from its ZVex™ immunotherapy platform administered with G100, which contains a potent synthetic TLR4 agonist, synergize with immune check point inhibitors and demonstrated potent local and systemic anti-tumor activity in cancer models. [Press release from Immune Design discussing research presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society of Immunotherapy for Cancer (SITC), National Harbor] Press Release

Intensity Therapeutics Preclinical Results Show AntiCancer Synergy of INT230-6 with Anti-PD-1 Compounds
Intensity Therapeutics, Inc. presented preclinical results from a study of INT230-6 in combination with checkpoint inhibitors. The results showed significantly increased antitumor response using a combination of INT230-6 with an anti-PD-1 antibody compared to combined administration of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. [Press release from Intensity Therapeutics, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society of Immunotherapy for Cancer (SITC), National Harbor] Press Release

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NIH Awards City of Hope $2.2 Million Grant for Study of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded a $2.2 million grant to help City of Hope researchers explore the underlying mechanisms of graft-versus-host disease, the leading cause of long-term sickness and death following transplantation of bone marrow cells from a donor. [City of Hope (Newswise, Inc.)] Press Release

An Aggressive Treatment for an Aggressive Cancer
A new clinical trial that recently opened at the University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center may help more people to undergo surgery to remove their pancreas tumors. The trial combines the potent chemotherapy regimen FOLFIRINOX and pinpoint-accurate stereotactic body radiation treatment with an immunotherapy drug called algenpantucel-L from NewLink Genetics. [University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Cell & Gene Therapy World
January 25-27, 2016
Washington, United States

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NEW Senior Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Scientist – Preclinical Immunology (Kanyos Bio)

NEW Senior Research Fellow – Cancer Biology/Immunology (Plymouth University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Regulatory Functions of Immune-Checkpoint Proteins (Medical College of Wisconsin)

Faculty Positions – Tumor Immunology (NYU Langone Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Metastatic Breast Cancer (Purdue University Center for Cancer Research)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Biology (The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center)

Professor – Immunology (La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology)

Canadian Research Chair Tier 1 – Systems Immunology (University of Manitoba)

Scientist Position – Role of Inflammation and the Immune System in the Context of Tissue Regeneration (KU Leuven)

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