Volume 7.40 | Oct 23

Immune Regulation News 7.40 October 23, 2015
Immune Regulation News
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A Subpopulation of White Blood Cells Guards against Tumor Lung Metastasis
Scientists showed that patrolling monocytes may play an anti-cancer role, particularly in the lung. They tracked the wanderings of these cells in the lung vasculature, filmed them pursuing invading tumor cells, and employed a mouse model that they developed to demonstrate how effective this pursuit is in a living animal. [Press release from the La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Selective Inhibition of the p38 Alternative Activation Pathway in Infiltrating T Cells Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Progression
Researchers showed that the growth of mouse pancreatic tumors was inhibited by genetic ablation of the alternative p38 pathway, and transfer of wild-type CD4+ T cells, but not those lacking the alternative pathway, enhanced tumor growth in T cell–deficient mice. [Nat Med] Abstract

Hair Follicle–Derived IL-7 and IL-15 Mediate Skin-Resident Memory T Cell Homeostasis and Lymphoma
Scientists demonstrated that CD4+ and CD8+ skin-resident memory T cells (TRM cells), which are responsible for long-term skin immunity, reside predominantly within the hair follicle epithelium of the unperturbed epidermis. Hair follicle expression of IL-15 was required for CD8+ TRM cells, and IL-7 for CD8+ and CD4+ TRM cells, to exert epidermotropism. [Nat Med] Abstract

Dietary Fatty Acids Directly Impact Central Nervous System Autoimmunity via the Small Intestine
Investigators report that long-chain fatty acids (FAs) enhanced differentiation and proliferation of T helper 1 (Th1) and/or Th17 cells and impaired their intestinal sequestration via p38-MAPK pathway. Alternatively, dietary short-chain FAs expanded gut T regulatory cells by suppression of the JNK1 and p38 pathway. [Immunity] Full Article | Press Release

Leptin Deficiency Shifts Mast Cells toward Anti-Inflammatory Actions and Protects Mice from Obesity and Diabetes by Polarizing M2 Macrophages
Mechanistic studies showed that leptin-deficient mast cells polarize macrophages from M1 to M2 functions because of impaired cell signaling and an altered balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, but do not affect T cell differentiation. [Cell Metab] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Oct1 and OCA-B Are Selectively Required for CD4 Memory T Cell Function
Scientists found that the transcription factor Oct1 and its cofactor OCA-B are selectively required for the in vivo generation of CD4+ memory T cells. More importantly, the memory cells that are formed do not respond properly to antigen reencounter. [J Exp Med] Abstract | Press Release

BAX Inhibitor-1 Is a Ca2+ Channel Critically Important for Immune Cell Function and Survival
Researchers suggest that BAX (BCL2-associated X protein) inhibitor-1 has a major role in the functioning of the adaptive immune system by regulating intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in lymphocytes. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Apoptosis of Tumor Infiltrating Effector TIM-3+CD8+ T Cells in Colon Cancer
The authors report apoptosis of IFN-γ competent TIM-3+ population of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in colon cancer. Both the TIM-3+ and TIM-3 cancer tissue-resident CD8+ T cells secrete IFN-γ of comparable levels, although apoptotic cells are more in TIM-3+ compared to TIM-3 population. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Systemic IL-12 Burst Expands Intestinal T Lymphocyte Subsets Bearing the α4β7 Integrin in Mice
Using hydrodynamic shear of IL-12 cDNA to achieve systemic expression of IL-12 in mice, scientists evaluated the effect of a transient burst of this cytokine on the activation status of T cells from Peyer’s patches, mesenteric lymph nodes and colonic lamina propria. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

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T Regulatory (Treg) and T Helper 17 (Th17) Lymphocytes in Thyroid Autoimmunity
Both Treg and Th17 cells must be considered as key elements in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases as well as plausible potential targets for the next generation of therapeutic options of this condition. [Endocrine] Abstract

Heterogeneity and Diversity of Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells: New Cells on the Block
Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) might cooperate with other cells directly or indirectly, and subsequently ILC3s have impact on tissues with prompt regulation. The author summarizes and discusses the roles, function and heterogeneity of ILC3s in mucosal tissues. [Int Immunol] Full Article

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AstraZeneca and Lilly Expand Immuno-Oncology Research Collaboration with New Combinations
AstraZeneca and Eli Lilly and Company announced an extension to their existing immuno-oncology collaboration exploring novel combination therapies for the treatment of patients with solid tumors. [AstraZeneca] Press Release

Novartis Broadens Immuno-Oncology Pipeline with Acquisition of Admune Therapeutics and Licensing Agreements with XOMA and Palobiofarma
Novartis announced that it is broadening its portfolio of cancer immunotherapies with the acquisition of Admune Therapeutics and licensing agreements with Palobiofarma and XOMA Corporation. [Novartis AG] Press Release

Kennedy Professor Awarded Major Funding for Immunology Research
Professor Michael Dustin, Director of Research at the Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology has been awarded two major grants this week, one from the European Research Council and the other from the Human Frontier Science Program. [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology] Press Release

Cold Genesys Announces FDA Acceptance of a Phase I/II Clinical Trial Using CG0070 plus an Anti-CTLA-4 Checkpoint Inhibitor as a Neo-Adjuvant Immunotherapy for Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Cold Genesys, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted a Phase I/II clinical trial using CG0070 plus an anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibitor as a neo-adjuvant immunotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. [Cold Genesys, Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release

UofL Researchers Awarded Patents for Innovations to Improve Cancer Treatments, Bone Grafts and Therapies for Spinal Cord Damage
Technologies to improve bone grafts and cancer immunotherapies, protect lung tissue during radiation treatment, reverse neurological damage and improve recovery from spinal cord injury are among the patents issued to the University of Louisville Research Foundation recently. [University of Louisville School of Medicine] Press Release

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NEW 10th International Congress on Autoimmunity
April 6-10, 2016
Leipzig, Germany

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NEW Faculty Positions – Tumor Immunology (NYU Langone Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Metastatic Breast Cancer (Purdue University Center for Cancer Research)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Klinikum Rechts der Isar Technische Universitat Munchen)

Research Scientist – Tumor Immunology (iTeos Therapeutics)

Project Manager – Manufacturing (Qu Biologics)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow/Research Scientist – Biotechnology (Qu Biologics)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Biology (The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center)

Professor – Immunology (La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology)

Canadian Research Chair Tier 1 – Systems Immunology (University of Manitoba)

Scientist Position – Role of Inflammation and the Immune System in the Context of Tissue Regeneration (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Shanghai Institute of Immunology)

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