Volume 7.37 | Oct 2

Immune Regulation News 7.37 October 2, 2015
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
An IL-23R/IL-22 Circuit Regulates Epithelial Serum Amyloid A to Promote Local Effector Th17 Responses
Researchers identified a segmented filamentous bacteria-dependent role of type 3 innate lymphoid cells, which secreted IL-22 that induced epithelial serum amyloid A proteins 1 and 2 production in a Stat3-dependent manner. This highlights the critical role of tissue microenvironment in activating effector functions of committed Th17 cells, which may have important implications for how these cells contribute to inflammatory disease. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
IL-34 Is a Treg-Specific Cytokine and Mediates Transplant Tolerance
Investigators showed that the cytokine IL-34, the immunoregulatory properties of which have not been previously studied in transplantation or T cell biology, is expressed by rodent CD8+CD45RClo Tregs and human FOXP3+CD45RCloCD8+ and CD4+ Tregs. IL-34 was involved in the suppressive function of both CD8+ and CD4+ Tregs and markedly inhibited alloreactive immune responses. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

Mast-Cell-Derived TNF Amplifies CD8+ Dendritic Cell Functionality and CD8+ T Cell Priming
Researchers showed that the absence of TNF exclusively in mast cells impaired the expansion of CD8+ T cells upon sensitization and the T-cell-driven adaptive immune response to elicitation. T cells primed in the absence of mast cell TNF exhibited a diminished efficiency to transfer sensitization to naive recipients. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Immunomodulatory Activities of the Benzoxathiole Derivative BOT-4-One Ameliorate Pathogenic Skin Inflammation in Mice
Investigators demonstrated the benzoxathiole derivative 2-cyclohexylimino-6-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[1,3]oxathiol-4-one (BOT-4-one) regulated immune responses and ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases both in vitro and in vivo. [J Invest Dermatol] Abstract

Dichotomous Roles for Externalized Cardiolipin in Extracellular Signaling: Promotion of Phagocytosis and Attenuation of Innate Immunity
Researchers suggest that externalized, extracellular cardiolipins play a dual role in host-host and host-pathogen interactions by promoting phagocytosis and attenuating inflammatory immune responses. [Sci Signal] Abstract

Glutamine-Dependent α-Ketoglutarate Production Regulates the Balance between T Helper 1 Cell and Regulatory T Cell Generation
Scientists showed that exogenous nutrient availability regulated the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into distinct subsets. Activation of naïve CD4+ T cells under conditions of glutamine deprivation resulted in their differentiation into Foxp3+ (forkhead box P3–positive) regulatory T cells, which had suppressor function in vivo. [Sci Signal] Abstract

Authentic GITR Signaling Fails to Induce Tumor Regression unless Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Are Depleted
Scientists generated a pentamerized form of the glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family–related protein (GITR) ligand extracellular domain (pGITRL) for ligation to GITR and compared its effect on T cells with that of anti-GITR mAb. The pGITRL was more effective than anti-GITR mAb in enhancing the proliferation of effector and regulatory cells in vitro and in vivo. [J Immunol] Abstract

Granzyme B-Mediated Activation-Induced Death of CD4+ T Cells Inhibits Murine Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease
Researchers titrated down the T cell dose to precisely determine the contribution of granzyme B (GzmB) in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) mediated by CD4+CD25 T cells. They found that GzmB−/−CD4+CD25 T cells cause more severe GVHD compared with wild-type CD4+CD25 T cells in both MHC-matched and mismatched models. [J Immunol] Abstract

Effective Intrahepatic CD8+ T-Cell Immune Responses Are Induced by Low but Not High Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Hepatocytes
Investigators aimed at elucidating the impact of different intrahepatic antigen loads on the quality of CD8+ T-cell-mediated immunity by employing an infection-free transgenic mouse model expressing ovalbumin as the target antigen. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
The Importance of the Non Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Model in Autoimmune Diabetes
The authors discuss the importance of the NOD model in identifying the roles of the innate immune system and the interaction with the gut microbiota in modifying diabetes susceptibility. In addition, the role of the B cells are discussed with new insights gained through B cell depletion experiments and the impact on translational developments. [J Autoimmun] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Immune Regulation research field.

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SCIENCE NEWS
Targeted Cancer Treatment: New Dual Strategy Halts Cell Division
A team of researchers has confirmed in a recent study its new concept for the targeted treatment of ovarian cancer. The strategy focuses on halting tumor growth by inhibiting two signal networks instead of just one. [Press release from the Medical University of Vienna discussing research presented at the European Cancer Congress (ECC) 2015, Vienna] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Canadian Researchers Pioneer Next-Generation Therapy for Prostate Cancer
A team of scientists and clinicians is developing a treatment for prostate cancer using viruses that destroy cancer cells and boost the anti-cancer immune response, yet leave normal cells unharmed. The team has received $5 million from Prostate Cancer Canada and the Movember Foundation. [McMaster University] Press Release

MD Anderson’s Allison Wins American Cancer Society Medal of Honor
A career-long fascination with discovering the ins and outs of T cells, our immune system’s tailor-made destroyers of infections and dysfunctional cells, has earned Jim Allison, Ph.D., the American Cancer Society’s 2015 Medal of Honor for Basic Research. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center] Press Release

SITC Celebrates U.S. Food & Drug Administration Approval of First Combination Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Cancer
The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) applauds the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s approval of Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Opdivo (nivolumab) in combination with Yervoy (ipilimumab) for the treatment of advanced melanoma. [Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer] Press Release

New Portable Device Counts Leukocytes through the Skin
A novel way to count white blood cells without a blood test, simply by applying a small device on the fingertip, is being developed by a team of young bioengineers. The system includes an innovative optics sensor through the skin that can observe white cells as they flow past a miniature lens. [Plataforma SINC] Press Release

Neon Therapeutics Launches with $55 Million Series A to Develop Neoantigen-Based Cancer Immunotherapies
Third Rock Ventures, LLC announced the formation of Neon Therapeutics, an immuno-oncology company developing neoantigen-based therapeutic vaccines and T cell therapies to treat cancer. Neon Therapeutics is focused on unlocking the full potential of the immune system to recognize and attack cancer via targeting proteins known as neoantigens. [Neon Therapeutics] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW CAR-T Summit 2015
November 12-13, 2015
Boston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Immune Regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Biology (The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center)

NEW Principal Investigator – Immunology Center (National Institutes of Health- National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)

NEW Professor – Immunology (La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology)

Canadian Research Chair Tier 1 – Systems Immunology (University of Manitoba)

Scientist Position – Role of Inflammation and the Immune System in the Context of Tissue Regeneration (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Shanghai Institute of Immunology)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Vascular Biology/Cancerology (University of Toulouse)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimmunology (Brain and Spine Institute (ICM))

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Development and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer (University College London)


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