Volume 7.34 | Sep 11

Immune Regulation News 7.34 September 11, 2015
Immune Regulation News
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A Distinct Function of Regulatory T Cells in Tissue Protection
Researchers demonstrate that selective regulatory T (Treg) cell deficiency in amphiregulin leads to severe acute lung damage and decreased blood oxygen concentration during influenza virus infection without any measureable alterations in Treg cell suppressor function, antiviral immune responses, or viral load. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Tissue-Specific Distribution of iNKT Cells Impacts Their Cytokine Response
Researchers defined the anatomic localization and systemic distribution of three subsets of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17, and measured their cytokine production. [Immunity] Abstract

Regulatory T Cells in Tumor-Associated Tertiary Lymphoid Structures Suppress Anti-Tumor T Cell Responses
Scientists investigated regulatory T (Treg) cell function in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma and found that Treg cells suppressed anti-tumor responses in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

CSF1 Restores Innate Immunity Following Liver Injury in Mice and Serum Levels Indicate Outcomes of Patients with Acute Liver Failure
In mice, administration of colony stimulating factor (CSF1)-Fc promoted hepatic macrophage accumulation via proliferation of resident macrophages and recruitment of monocytes. CSF1-Fc also promoted trans-differentiation of infiltrating monocytes into cells with a hepatic macrophage phenotype. [Gastroenterology] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Targeting Siglecs with a Sialic Acid–Decorated Nanoparticle Abrogates Inflammation
Investigators report that a Siglec receptor (sialic acid–binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-E) down-regulates macrophage activation by inflammatory signals released during infection and tissue damage, thereby interrupting the chain of events leading to sepsis. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Unique Potential of 4-1BB Agonist Antibody to Promote Durable Regression of HPV+ Tumors When Combined with an E6/E7 Peptide Vaccine
The authors report that intranasal vaccination with 15–19 amino acid peptides from human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 E6/E7 and the adjuvant alpha-galactosylceramide elicits systemic and mucosal T-cell responses leading to reduced HPV+ TC-1 tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Full Article

ABCB5 Identifies Immunoregulatory Dermal Cells
Investigators showed that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5) identifies dermal immunoregulatory cells (DIRCs) capable of exerting therapeutic immunoregulatory functions through engagement of programmed cell death 1. Purified Abcb5+ DIRCs suppressed T cell proliferation, evaded immune rejection, homed to recipient immune tissues, and induced Tregs in vivo. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Cytokine Expression by Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Is Tightly Regulated throughout Development and Settings of Type-2 Inflammation
Using interleukin-13 (IL-13)-reporter mice to fate-map cytokine–expressing cells in vivo, scientists revealed that thymic invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells express IL-13 early during development, and this IL-13-expressing intermediate gives rise to mature iNKT1, iNKT2, and iNKT17 subsets. [Mucosal Immunol] Full Article

Interaction of Dendritic Cells and T Lymphocytes for the Therapeutic Effect of Dangguiliuhuang Decoction to Autoimmune Diabetes
In vitro, Dangguiliuhuang decoction and individual active ingredients enhanced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells, inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation, and suppressed dendritic cells function. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Latent Virus Infection Upregulates CD40 Expression Facilitating Enhanced Autoimmunity in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Investigators demonstrated that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was dependent on the γHV‑68 latent life cycle and was associated with STAT1 and CD40 upregulation on uninfected dendritic cells. They also showed that, during viral latency, the frequency of regulatory T cells is reduced via a CD40 dependent mechanism and this contributes towards a strong T helper 1 response that resolves in severe EAE disease pathology. [Sci Rep] Full Article

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Osteopontin in Immune-Mediated Diseases
The authors focus on the role of osteopontin in a series of immune-related diseases, particularly those where significant advances have been made in recent years. A recurring theme in these diseases is a link between osteopontin and pathogenic T cells, particularly T helper 17 cells, where osteopontin produced by dendritic cells supports IL-17 expression, contributing to pathology. [J Dent Res] Abstract

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Genentech to Present Data from 15 Medicines across Its Portfolio of Cancer Immunotherapy and Targeted Medicines
Genentech announced that data from 138 abstracts will be presented. Results will be presented from several clinical studies that are supporting ongoing regulatory discussions for three investigational medicines across specific types of lung, bladder and skin cancer. [Press release from Genentech, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the European Cancer Congress (ECC), Vienna] Press Release

Transgene Announces Final Overall Survival Data from Phase IIb TIME Trial with TG4010 Immunotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Transgene SA announced the presentation of final data from the Phase IIb part of the TIME trial with TG4010 MUC1 targeted immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. [Press release from Transgene SA discussing research presented at the 16th World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC), Denver] Press Release

OSE PHARMA Unveils Clinical and Immunological Outcomes in Patients with Brain Metastases Treated with Tedopi® in a Phase II Trial
OSE Pharma SA unveiled encouraging results of survival and T-specific immune response in the patients with brain metastases treated with the company’s T-specific immunotherapy. [Press release from OSE Pharma SA discussing research presented at the 16th World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC), Denver] Press Release

New Cohorts from CheckMate -012 Assess Optimal Dosing of Opdivo+Yervoy in the First-Line Treatment of Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company announced updated results from the Opdivo (nivolumab)+Yervoy (ipilimumab) arms in CheckMate -012, a multi-arm Phase Ib trial evaluating Opdivo in patients with chemotherapy-naïve advanced non-small cell lung cancer. [Press release from Bristol-Myers Squibb Company discussing research presented at the 16th World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC), Denver] Press Release

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Five Prime Therapeutics Initiates Patient Dosing in Phase Ia/Ib Trial Evaluating the Immunotherapy Combination of FPA008 and OPDIVO (Nivolumab) in Six Tumor Types
Five Prime Therapeutics, Inc. announced that it has initiated patient dosing in the Phase Ia/Ib clinical trial evaluating the immunotherapy combination of FPA008, Five Prime’s monoclonal antibody that inhibits colony stimulating factor-1 receptor with OPDIVO®, Bristol-Myers Squibb’s PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, in six tumor types. [Five Prime Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Aduro Biotech Announces Clinical Trial Agreement to Evaluate Combination of Two Novel Cancer Immunotherapies for the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer
Aduro Biotech, Inc. announced that it has entered into a clinical trial agreement with Incyte Corporation to evaluate the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of Aduro’s lead LADD immunotherapy, CRS-207, in combination with Incyte’s oral indoleamine dioxygenase 1 inhibitor, epacadostat, in patients with ovarian cancer. [Aduro Biotech, Inc.] Press Release

MD Anderson Immunologist Jim Allison Wins Lasker-DeBakey Award
For inventing a completely new way to strike cancer by unlocking a shackled immune system attack, Jim Allison, Ph.D., chair of Immunology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, will receive the nation’s highest honor for clinical medical research. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center] Press Release

Hurdles in Therapy with Regulatory T Cells
Investigators report the stance of the European Union Cooperation in Science and Technology Action BM1305, “Action to Focus and Accelerate Cell-Based Tolerance-Inducing Therapies—A FACTT,” which identifies hurdles hindering regulatory T cell clinical applications in Europe and provide possible solutions. [Sci Transl Med] Editorial

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NEW Keystone Symposium: Cytokine JAK-STAT Signaling in Immunity and Disease
January 10-14, 2016
Steamboat Springs, United States

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NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Immunology (University Hospital Heidelberg)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Shanghai Institute of Immunology)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Vascular Biology/Cancerology (University of Toulouse)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimmunology (Brain and Spine Institute (ICM))

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Development and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer (University College London)

Senior Research Technician (Qu Biologics Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (The Henry M. Jackson Foundation)

Harry Eagle Scholar Awards for Postdoctoral Candidates (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Research (Rutgers University)

Research Associate – Cell Biology (Editas Medicine)

Senior Research Associate – CRISPR-Based Therapeutics (Editas Medicine)

PhD Studentship – Veterinary and Animal Sciences (University of Milan)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Reconstitution in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Stanford University)

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