Volume 7.32 | Aug 28

Immune Regulation News 7.32 August 28, 2015
Immune Regulation News
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Study Reveals New Way to ‘Rewire’ Immune Cells to Slow Tumor Growth
Inside a tumor, immune cells and cancer cells battle for survival. The advantage may go to the cells that metabolize the most glucose, say researchers who have identified a new way to boost immune response by metabolically “rewiring” immune cells. [Press release from Yale University discussing publication in Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Robust Anti-Viral Immunity Requires Multiple Distinct T Cell-Dendritic Cell Interactions
Scientists addressed the role of dendritic cell (DC) subsets in initial activation of the two T cell types and their co-operation. Surprisingly, initial priming of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was spatially segregated within the lymph node and occurred on different DCs with temporally distinct patterns of antigen presentation via MHCI versus MHCII molecules. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

TCR Affinity for Thymoproteasome-Dependent Positively Selecting Peptides Conditions Antigen Responsiveness in CD8+ T Cells
The authors report that T cell antigen receptor (TCR) responsiveness of mature CD8+ T cells is fine-tuned by their affinity for positively selecting peptides in the thymus and that optimal TCR responsiveness requires positive selection on major histocompatibility complex class I–associated peptides produced by the thymoproteasome, which is specifically expressed in the thymic cortical epithelium. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Role of Tumor Pericytes in the Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
Silencing IL-6 expression in tumor cells attenuated the observed differences in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) transmigration. Restoring the pericyte coverage in tumors abrogated the increased MDSC trafficking to pericyte-deficient tumors. [J Natl Cancer Inst] Abstract | Press Release

Suppression of Th2 and Tfh Immune Reactions by Nr4a Receptors in Mature T Reg Cells
Researchers showed that deletion of Nr4a genes specifically in regulatory T (T reg) cells caused fatal systemic immunopathology. Furthermore, Nr4a deficiency abrogated T reg cell suppressive activities and accelerated conversion to cells with Th2 and follicular helper T (Tfh) effector-like characteristics, with heightened expression of Th2 and Tfh cytokine genes. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Adaptive Immune Regulation of Mammary Postnatal Organogenesis
Investigators showed that adaptive immune responses participate in the normal postnatal development of a non-lymphoid epithelial tissue. They found that antigen-mediated interactions between mammary antigen-presenting cells and interferon-γ-producing CD4+ T helper 1 cells participate in mammary gland postnatal organogenesis as negative regulators, locally orchestrating epithelial rearrangement. [Dev Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

NLRP3 Deficiency Protects from Type 1 Diabetes through the Regulation of Chemotaxis into the Pancreatic Islets
The authors report that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein (NLRP) 3 plays an important role in the development of type 1 diabetes in the nonobese diabetic mouse model. NLRP3 deficiency not only affected T-cell activation and Th1 differentiation, but also modulated pathogenic T-cell migration to the pancreatic islet. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

T Lymphocyte–Specific Activation of Nrf2 Protects from AKI
Investigators generated mice with genetically amplified levels of Nrf2 specifically in T cells and examined the effect on antioxidant gene expression, T cell activation, cytokine production, and ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI. [J Am Soc Nephrol] Abstract

Foxp3+ T Cells Expressing RORγt Represent a Stable Regulatory T-Cell Effector Lineage with Enhanced Suppressive Capacity during Intestinal Inflammation
Scientists report that Foxp3+CD4+ T cells coexpressing retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt), the master transcription factor for T helper type 17 cells, represent a stable effector regulatory T cell lineage. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

LXR-Mediated ABCA1 Expression and Function Are Modulated by High Glucose and PRMT2
Using a mouse macrophage cell line and primary bone marrow derived macrophages cultured in normal or diabetes relevant high glucose conditions researchers found that high glucose inhibits the liver X receptor (LXR)-dependent expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), but not ABCG1. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Celiac Disease and Autoimmune Disease—Genetic Overlap and Screening
The genetic and immunological features of celiac disease, overlap with other autoimmune diseases and implications for current screening strategies will be discussed. [Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol] Abstract

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Peregrine Pharmaceuticals Presents Data Supporting Ability of Bavituximab to Mediate Anti-Tumor T Cell Responses across Multiple Tumor Types
Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the presentation of a range of clinical, translational and pre-clinical study results highlighting the ability of bavituximab, Peregrine’s investigational phosphatidylserine-signaling pathway inhibitor, to promote anti-tumor T cell mediated activity in several tumor types. [Press release from Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research presented at the 10th Annual Immunotherapy and Vaccine Summit (ImVacS), Boston] Press Release

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Syndax Enters Clinical Trial Collaboration in Cancer Immunotherapy Combining Entinostat and Atezolizumab
Syndax Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that it has entered into a clinical collaboration with Genentech to evaluate the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of Syndax’s entinostat, an oral small molecule that targets immune regulatory cells in combination with Genentech’s atezolizumab, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody targeting protein programmed cell death ligand 1 in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. [Syndax Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Immatics and MD Anderson Announce Launch of Immatics US, Inc., to Develop Multiple T-Cell and TCR-Based Adoptive Cellular Therapies
Immatics Biotechnologies GmbH and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center announced the launch of Immatics US, Inc., a new company aiming at becoming a global leader in adoptive cellular therapies for the treatment of a range of tumor types. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center] Press Release

Advaxis Announces Licensing Agreement with Knight Therapeutics and Raises $25 Million through Direct Investments from Knight and Sectoral Asset Management
Advaxis, Inc. announced that the company has entered into a licensing agreement with Knight Therapeutics Inc. to commercialize in Canada Advaxis’s product portfolio including its three lead drug candidates: axalimogene filolisbac (ADXS-HPV) for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancers, ADXS-PSA for prostate cancer and ADXS-HER2 for HER2 expressing solid tumors. [Advaxis, Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2015
November 4-8, 2015
National Harbor, United States

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Vascular Biology/Cancerology (University of Toulouse)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimmunology (Brain and Spine Institute (ICM))

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Development and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer (University College London)

Senior Research Technician (Qu Biologics Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (The Henry M. Jackson Foundation)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Biotechnology (Qu Biologics Inc.)

Harry Eagle Scholar Awards for Postdoctoral Candidates (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Research (Rutgers University)

Research Associate – Cell Biology (Editas Medicine)

Senior Research Associate – CRISPR-Based Therapeutics (Editas Medicine)

Research Assistant – Immunotherapy for HIV Infection (California Institute of Technology)

PhD Studentship – Veterinary and Animal Sciences (University of Milan)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Tumorigenesis and Immune Response (Nationwide Children Hospital-Ohio)

Senior Scientist – Immunology (Valera LLC)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Reconstitution in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Stanford University)

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