Volume 7.28 | Jul 31

Immune Regulation News 7.28 July 31, 2015
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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How Cholesterol Leads to Clogged Arteries
Researchers showed that when immune cells called neutrophils are exposed to cholesterol crystals, they release large extracellular web-like structures that trigger the production of inflammatory molecules linked to atherosclerosis. [Press release from the Francis Crick Institute discussing publication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Transcription Factor Bcl11b Controls Identity and Function of Mature Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells
The authors report that Bcl11b, previously considered a T-cell-specific transcription factor, acted directly upstream of the key type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) transcription factor Gfi1 to maintain its expression in mature ILC2s. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Out-of-Sequence Signal 3 Paralyzes Primary CD4+ T-Cell-Dependent Immunity
Researchers showed that during strong stimulation, a profound suppression of primary CD4+ T-cell-mediated immune responses ensued and was observed across preclinical models and patients undergoing high-dose interleukin-2 therapy. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

LEF-1 and TCF-1 Orchestrate TFH Differentiation by Regulating Differentiation Circuits Upstream of the Transcriptional Repressor Bcl6
The authors report that selective loss of Lef1 or Tcf7 (which encode the transcription factor LEF-1 or TCF-1, respectively) resulted in follicular helper T (TFH) cell defects, while deletion of both Lef1 and Tcf7 severely impaired the differentiation of TFH cells and the formation of germinal centers. Forced expression of LEF-1 enhanced TFH differentiation. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Intestinal Inhibition of Atg7 Prevents Tumor Initiation through a Microbiome-Influenced Immune Response and Suppresses Tumor Growth
Investigators showed that autophagy is activated in the intestinal epithelium in murine and human colorectal cancer and that the conditional inactivation of Atg7 in intestinal epithelial cells inhibits the formation of pre-cancerous lesions in Apc+/− mice by enhancing anti-tumor responses. The antibody-mediated depletion of CD8+ T cells showed that these cells are essential for the anti-tumoral responses mediated by the inhibition of autophagy. [Nat Cell Biol] Abstract

Intestinal CD169+ Macrophages Initiate Mucosal Inflammation by Secreting CCL8 that Recruits Inflammatory Monocytes
Following mucosal injury, the CD169+ macrophages recruited inflammatory monocytes by secreting CCL8. Selective depletion of CD169+ macrophages or administration of neutralizing anti-CCL8 antibody ameliorated the symptoms of experimentally induced colitis in mice. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Active Suppression of Intestinal CD4+TCRαβ+ T-Lymphocyte Maturation during the Postnatal Period
Scientists showed that shortly after birth, CD4 T cells populate preformed lymphoid structures in the small intestine and quickly acquire a distinct transcriptional profile. T-cell recruitment is independent of microbial colonization and innate or adaptive immune stimulation but requires β7 integrin expression. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Spontaneous Retrotransposon Insertion into TNF 3′UTR Causes Heart Valve Disease and Chronic Polyarthritis
Investigators studied a new spontaneous mutation that causes severe polyarthritis in bone phenotype spontaneous mutation 1 mice. They found that several members of a family of RNA-binding, CCCH-containing zinc-finger proteins control tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression through its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR), and identified a previously unidentified regulatory element in the UTR. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Interferon-Beta Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis Patients Improves the Responsiveness of T Cells for Immune Suppression by Regulatory T Cells
Researchers investigated T cell function in multiple sclerosis patients before and after interferon-beta therapy. They compared cytokine profile, responsiveness for Treg-mediated suppression ex vivo and evaluated reactivity of T cells in vivo using a humanized mouse model. [Int J Mol Sci] Full Article

Modulation of Dendritic Cell Function by the Radiation-Mediated Secretory Protein γ-Synuclein
Scientists investigated whether radiation-induced, tumor-derived γ-synuclein (SNCG) can influence dendritic cell (DC) function in immune systems. The ability of SNCG-treated DCs to influence T cells was also examined by coculturing with T cells. [Cell Death Discov] Full Article

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Big Opportunities for Small Molecules in Immuno-Oncology
Agents aimed at the modulation of the immune response, trafficking to the tumor microenvironment and cellular infiltration are poised to significantly extend the scope of immuno-oncology applications and enhance the opportunities for combination with tumor-targeted agents and biologic immunotherapies. [Nat Rev Drug Discov] Abstract

Combination Cancer Immunotherapy and New Immunomodulatory Targets
The authors discuss the leading drug targets that are expressed on tumor cells and in the tumor microenvironment that allow enhancement of the antitumor immune response. [Nat Rev Drug Discov] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation research field.

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Advaxis’s Scientific Founder to Present on ADXS-HER2
Advaxis, Inc. announced that the company’s scientific founder, Yvonne Paterson, Ph.D., will give a presentation titled “HER-2/neu as a target for Listeria-based cancer immunotherapy for breast cancer.” [Press release from Advaxis, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 2015 World Congress on Breast Cancer, Birmingham] Press Release

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La Jolla Institute Announces Affiliation with UC San Diego Health
The La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology announced an official affiliation agreement with the University of California, San Diego Health System (UCSD). The multi-year agreement with UCSD will facilitate joint faculty appointments, enhance the range and depth of collaboration between the two organizations, and promote closer integration between basic immunology research and clinical medicine to speed the development of treatments for diseases of the immune system. [La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology] Press Release

Merck Enhances Immuno-Oncology Portfolio with Acquisition of cCAM Biotherapeutics
Merck and cCAM Biotherapeutics announced that the companies have signed a definitive agreement under which Merck will acquire cCAM Biotherapeutics, a privately held biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of novel cancer immunotherapies. [Merck & Co., Inc.] Press Release

Moffitt Cancer Center Teams Up with MD Anderson to Discover, Test Novel Agents to Prevent Cancer
Moffitt Cancer Center has joined MD Anderson’s National Cancer Institute (NCI) Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Chemoprevention Trials Consortia. Sponsored by the NCI’s Division of Cancer Prevention, the consortia conducts early clinical development of promising new preventive agents through its Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program. [Moffitt Cancer Center (Newswise, Inc.)] Press Release

Bavarian Nordic Announces Initiation of NCI-sponsored Phase II Study of PROSTVAC in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer
Bavarian Nordic A/S announced that the first patient has been enrolled in a new Phase II clinical study of PROSTVAC, the company’s active prostate cancer immunotherapy candidate. [Bavarian Nordic A/S] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 6th InterAmerican Oncology Conference ‘Current Status and Future of Anti-Cancer Targeted Therapies’
October 8-9, 2015
Buenos Aires, Argentina

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Biotechnology (Qu Biologics Inc.)

NEW Harry Eagle Scholar Awards for Postdoctoral Candidates (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Research (Rutgers University)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientific Marketing Specialist – Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Biology (Editas Medicine)

Senior Research Associate – CRISPR-Based Therapeutics (Editas Medicine)

Research Assistant – Immunotherapy for HIV Infection (California Institute of Technology)

Postdoctoral Position – Translational Immunology (University of Utah School of Medicine)

PhD Studentship – Veterinary and Animal Sciences (University of Milan)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Tumorigenesis and Immune Response (Nationwide Children Hospital-Ohio)

Senior Scientist – Immunology (Valera LLC)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Antibody Engineering/Immuno-Oncology (California Institute for Biomedical Research)

Associate Director/Director – Immunology (Valera)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Reconstitution in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Stanford University)

Assistant Professor – Immunology (Northwestern University)

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