Volume 7.22 | Jun 19

Immune Regulation News 7.22 June 19, 2015
Immune Regulation News
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Investigators Discover How Ovarian Cancer Halts Body’s Natural Defense against Tumor
Investigators identified a gene in dendritic cells that ovarian cancer turns on, resulting in the cells’ inability to mount an effective response against the tumor. In preclinical studies, they demonstrated that turning off the gene, XBP1, restored dendritic cell function and triggers robust immune responses against ovarian tumors. [Press release from Weill Cornell Medical College discussing publication in Cell]
Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Diabetes Primes Neutrophils to Undergo NETosis, which Impairs Wound Healing
Investigators showed that neutrophils isolated from type 1 and type 2 diabetic humans and mice were primed to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4, an enzyme important in chromatin decondensation, was elevated in neutrophils from individuals with diabetes. [Nat Med]
Abstract | Press Release

Nilotinib Reduces Muscle Fibrosis in Chronic Muscle Injury by Promoting TNF-Mediated Apoptosis of Fibro/Adipogenic Progenitors
Scientists showed that in acutely damaged skeletal muscle, sequential interactions between multipotent mesenchymal progenitors and infiltrating inflammatory cells determine the outcome of the reparative process. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

Dipeptidylpeptidase 4 Inhibition Enhances Lymphocyte Trafficking, Improving Both Naturally Occurring Tumor Immunity and Immunotherapy
Investigators showed that in vivo post-translational processing of chemokines by dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4) limits lymphocyte migration to sites of inflammation and tumors. Inhibition of DPP4 enzymatic activity enhanced tumor rejection by preserving biologically active CXCL10 and increasing trafficking into the tumor by lymphocytes expressing the counter-receptor CXCR3. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

E3 Ubiquitin Ligase VHL Regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α to Maintain Regulatory T Cell Stability and Suppressive Capacity
Scientists report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL is essential for regulatory T (Treg) cell function. Mice with Foxp3-restricted VHL deletion displayed massive inflammation associated with excessive Treg cell interferon-γ production. VHL-deficient Treg cells failed to prevent colitis induction, but converted into Th1-like effector T cells. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Quiescence of Memory CD8+ T Cells Is Mediated by Regulatory T Cells through Inhibitory Receptor CTLA-4
Investigators report that regulatory T cells orchestrate memory T cell quiescence by suppressing effector and proliferation programs through inhibitory receptor, cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4). [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Exosome-Delivered MicroRNAs Modulate the Inflammatory Response to Endotoxin
Scientists found that endogenous miR-155 and miR-146a, two critical microRNAs that regulate inflammation, are released from dendritic cells within exosomes and are subsequently taken up by recipient dendritic cells. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Ex Vivo Engineered Immune Organoids for Controlled Germinal Center Reactions
The authors describe a B cell follicle organoid made of nanocomposite biomaterials, which recapitulates the anatomical microenvironment of a lymphoid tissue that provides the basis to induce an accelerated germinal center reaction by continuously providing extracellular matrix and cell-cell signals to naïve B cells. [Biomaterials] Abstract | Press Release

EZH2 Is Crucial for Both Differentiation of Regulatory T Cells and T Effector Cell Expansion
Researchers demonstrated that deletion of Ezh2 in CD4 T cells resulted in reduced numbers of Treg cells in vivo and differentiation in vitro and an increased proportion of memory CD4 T cells in part due to exaggerated production of effector cytokines. [Sci Rep] Full Article

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Proteolytic Processing of Interleukin-1 Family Cytokines: Variations on a Common Theme
Elucidating the regulation of interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members by proteolytic processing is of great interest for understanding inflammation and immunity. Investigators review the identity of the proteases involved in the proteolytic processing of IL-1 family cytokines and the therapeutic implications in inflammatory disease. [Immunity] Abstract

Immunology of IgG4-Related Disease
The authors review the most recent insights on the immunology of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-RD, focusing on the relative contribution of innate and adaptive immune responses to the full pathological phenotype of this fibrotic condition. [Clin Exp Immunol] Full Article

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Definitive Agreement to Acquire CD40LGVAX Vaccine
Cellular Biomedicine Group Inc. announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire from Blackbird Bio Finance University of South Florida’s next generation GVAX vaccine’s (CD40LGVAX) related technologies and know-how. [Cellular Biomedicine Group Inc.] Press Release

TGen and Mayo Clinic Help Launch National Clinical Trials to Combat Advanced Skin Cancer
The Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) and Mayo Clinic are helping launch a national clinical trial that will apply the latest in precision medicine to treat advanced melanoma skin cancer. [Translational Genomics Research Institute] Press Release

Admune Announces the First-in-Human Study of Heterodimeric IL-15 (HetIL-15) with Broad Applications for Cancer Immunotherapy
Admune Therapeutics announced that enrollment has initiated in a Phase I clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of its lead compound hetIL-15. Prior studies indicate hetIL-15 expands and activates relevant populations of lymphocytes, the white blood cells involved in immune system regulation. [Admune Therapeutics] Press Release

RedHill Biopharma Announces Acceptance of Phase III Trial Application in Europe with RHB-104 for Crohn’s Disease
RedHill Biopharma Ltd. announced that the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency has accepted RedHill’s clinical trial application to initiate a second Phase III study of RHB-104 for Crohn’s disease. [RedHill Biopharma Ltd.] Press Release

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NEW Keystone Symposium – Systems Immunology: From Molecular Networks to Human Biology
January 10-14, 2016
Big Sky, United States

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NEW Scientist – Immunology Discovery (Genentech, Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology and Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientific Marketing Specialist – Immunology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Antibody Engineering/Immuno-Oncology (California Institute for Biomedical Research)

Associate Director/Director – Immunology (Valera)

PhD Position – Molecular Immunology (VIB – Ghent University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Reconstitution in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Stanford University)

Process Facilitator (Opexa Therapeutics)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Tolerance (Stanford University)

Assistant Professor – Immunology (Northwestern University)

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