Volume 7.12 | Apr 10

Immune Regulation News 7.12 April 10, 2015
Immune Regulation News
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How Immune Cells Facilitate the Spread of Breast Cancer
Researchers discovered that certain immune cells are persuaded by breast tumors to facilitate the spread of cancer cells. The tumor sends out signaling molecules that through a number of steps cause the immune system to produce lots of neutrophils. These neutrophils are able to block the actions of T cells. [Press release from the Netherlands Cancer Institute discussing online publication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Receptor TREML4 Amplifies TLR7-Mediated Signaling during Antiviral Responses and Autoimmunity
Macrophages from Treml4−/− mice were hyporesponsive to Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists and failed to produce type I interferons due to impaired phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT1 by the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and decreased recruitment of the adaptor MyD88 to TLR7. [Nat Immunol]
Abstract | Press Release

Responsiveness of B Cells Is Regulated by the Hinge Region of IgD
The authors suggest that the increased immunoglobulin D (IgD)/IgM ratio on conventional B-2 cells is important for preferential immune responses to antigens in immune complexes, and that the increased IgM expression on B-1 cells is essential for B-1 cell homeostasis and function. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

T Follicular Helper Cells Have Distinct Modes of Migration and Molecular Signatures in Naive and Memory Immune Responses
Scientists showed that primary helper follicular T cells segregate into follicular mantle and germinal center subpopulations that display distinct gene expression signatures. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Regulation of Obesity-Related Insulin Resistance with Gut Anti-inflammatory Agents
Researchers showed that the gut immune system is altered during high-fat diet feeding and is a functional regulator of obesity-related insulin resistance that can be exploited therapeutically. Obesity induces a chronic phenotypic pro-inflammatory shift in bowel lamina propria immune cell populations. [Cell Metab]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

The Prostaglandin D2 Receptor CRTH2 Regulates Accumulation of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in the Inflamed Lung
The authors provide the first demonstration that expression of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells) regulates the in vivo accumulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in the lung. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

DNAM-1 Expression Marks an Alternative Program of NK Cell Maturation
Scientists demonstrate through transcriptional profiling and functional studies that the activating receptor DNAM-1 (CD226) identifies two distinct natural killer (NK) cell functional subsets: DNAM-1+ and DNAM-1 NK cells. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Development of a Cell System for siRNA Screening of Pathogen Responses in Human and Mouse Macrophages
To develop an assay platform for high-throughput analysis of macrophage activation by pathogenic stimuli, the authors generated reporter systems in human and mouse macrophages with dynamic readouts for NF-κB and/or TNF-α responses. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Conserved and Divergent Aspects of Human T-Cell Development and Migration in Humanized Mice
Researchers found that both conventional T-cell development and intra-thymic migration patterns in humanized mice closely resemble human thymopoiesis. They showed that developing human thymocytes engage in short, serial interactions with other human hematopoietic-derived cells. [Immunol Cell Biol] Full Article

Macrophages Play an Essential Role in Antigen-Specific Immune Suppression Mediated by T CD8+ Cell-Derived Exosomes
Researchers investigated the role of macrophages (Mφ) in T CD8+ suppressor cell-exosome-mediated antigen-specific suppression as well as modulation of Mφ antigen-presenting function in humoral and cellular immunity by suppressive exosomes. [Immunology] Abstract

Inhibiting Macrophage Proliferation Suppresses Atherosclerotic Plaque Inflammation
Because macrophage proliferation was recently shown to dominate macrophage accumulation in advanced plaques, locally inhibiting macrophage proliferation may reduce plaque inflammation and produce long-term therapeutic benefits. To test this hypothesis, scientists used nanoparticle-based delivery of simvastatin to inhibit plaque macrophage proliferation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with advanced atherosclerotic plaques. [Sci Adv] Full Article | Press Release

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The Development and In Vivo Function of T Helper 9 Cells
The authors summarize the current understanding of the contribution of T helper 9 (TH9) cells to both effective immunity and immunopathological disease, and propose that TH9 cells could be targeted for the treatment of allergic and autoimmune disease. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Immune-Mediated Mechanisms Influencing the Efficacy of Anticancer Therapies
The authors discuss the impact of innate and adaptive immune cells on the success of anticancer therapy. In this context they examine the opportunities to exploit host immune responses to boost tumor clearing, and highlight the challenges facing the treatment of advanced metastatic disease. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

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Inovio Pharmaceuticals HPV Immunotherapy Activates Robust In Vivo T Cell Responses in Head & Neck Cancer Patients
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced preliminary data showing that its INO-3112 DNA-based immunotherapy generated strong CD8+ T cell responses in three of four patients with head and neck cancer associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18. [Press release from Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research presented at the World Vaccine Congress 2015, Washington DC] Press Release

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American Cancer Society Awards New Research and Training Grants
The American Cancer Society, the largest non-government, not-for-profit funding source of cancer research in the United States, has awarded 100 national research and training grants totaling more than $45.6 million in the first of two grant cycles for 2015. [American Cancer Society, Inc.] Press Release

Memorial Sloan Kettering Opens Pediatric CAR T Cell Clinical Trial
Researchers from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center are pioneering a new groundbreaking clinical trial for children and young adults with relapsed or treatment-resistant acute lymphocytic leukemia by using one of the most promising methods of cancer treatment today, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center] Press Release

Advaxis and Merck Announce Initiation of Enrollment in the Phase I/II Study of ADXS-PSA in Combination with Anti-PD-1 Therapy, KEYTRUDA® (Pembrolizumab), for the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer
Advaxis, Inc. and Merck announced that enrollment has initiated in the Phase I/II clinical trial evaluating the combination of ADXS-PSA, an investigational Lm-LLO immunotherapy, and KEYTRUDA® in patients with previously treated, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. [Advaxis, Inc.] Press Release
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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Nordic Life Sciences Days 2015
September 9-10, 2015
Stockholm, Sweden

NEW 14th International Workshop on Langerhans Cells
November 5-8, 2015
Kyoto, Japan

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NEW Senior Scientist – Immunology (National Institute of Immunology)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Rheumatology (University of California at Davis)

NEW Assistant Professor – Immunology (Northwestern University)

NEW Assistant Professor – Immunology (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)

Manufacturing Manager – Cell Therapy (Opexa Therapeutics)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Molecular Aspects of Autoimmunity (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

PhD Studentship – Mouse Models of Asthma (University of Queensland)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy (Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute)

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