Volume 7.02 | Jan 23

Immune Regulation News 7.02 January 23, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Major Discovery on Spinal Injury Reveals Unknown Immune Response
In a discovery that could dramatically affect the treatment of brain and spinal cord injuries, researchers have identified a previously unknown, beneficial immune response that occurs after injury to the central nervous system. [Press release from the University of Virginia discussing online prepublication in The Journal of Clinical Investigation] Press Release | Full Article
A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Protein Kinase CK2 Enables Regulatory T Cells to Suppress Excessive TH2 Responses In Vivo
Through the use of regulatory T cell-specific gene targeting, investigators found that the suppression of allergic immune responses in the lungs mediated by T helper type 2 (TH2) cells was dependent on the activity of the protein kinase CK2. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Anticancer Immunotherapy by CTLA-4 Blockade: Obligatory Contribution of IL-2 Receptors and Negative Prognostic Impact of Soluble CD25
Investigators show that neutralization of IL-2 or blocking the α and β subunits of the IL-2 receptor (CD25 and CD122, respectively) abolished the antitumor effects and the accompanying improvement of the ratio of intratumoral T effector versus regulatory cells, which were otherwise induced by cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) blockade in preclinical mouse models. [Cell Res] Full Article

Commensal Microbiota Influence Systemic Autoimmune Responses
Using mice deficient in lymphotoxin and Hox11, scientists report that approximately 25% of mice lacking secondary lymphoid organs spontaneously develop specific antinuclear antibodies. They demonstrate antinuclear antibody production is influenced by the presence of commensal gut flora, in particular increased colonization with segmented filamentous bacteria, and IL-17 receptor signaling. [EMBO J]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

PD-L1hi B Cells Are Critical Regulators of Humoral Immunity
Researchers show that regulatory B cells play a critical role in regulating humoral immunity mediated by ​CD4+​CXCR5+​PD-1+ follicular helper T cells, and can suppress inflammation in autoimmune disease through elevated expression of ​PD-L1. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Autophagy Enhances NFκB Activity in Specific Tissue Macrophages by Sequestering ​A20 to Boost Antifungal Immunity
Scientists report a role of autophagy in an early host antifungal response by enhancing NFκB activity through ​A20 sequestration. Enhancement of NFκB activation is achieved by autophagic depletion of ​A20, an NFκB inhibitor, in ​F4/80hi macrophages in the spleen, peritoneum and kidney. [Nat Commun]
Abstract | Press Release

Cyclic AMP Concentrations in Dendritic Cells Induce and Regulate Th2 Immunity and Allergic Asthma
Scientists show that deletion of Gnas, the gene that encodes Gαs in mouse CD11c+ cells, and the accompanying decrease in cAMP provoke Th2 polarization and yields a prominent allergic phenotype, whereas increases in cAMP inhibit these responses. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Mannose 6 Phosphorylation of Lysosomal Enzymes Controls B Cell Functions
Researchers show that mice deficient in the formation of mannose 6-phosphate residues exhibit significant loss of cathepsin proteases in B cells, leading to lysosomal dysfunction with accumulation of storage material, impaired antigen processing and presentation, and subsequent defects in B cell maturation and antibody production. [J Cell Biol] Abstract | Press Release | Editorial

Macrophage Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Deficiency Delays Skin Wound Healing through Impairing Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Mice
Scientists observed that macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression was upregulated during skin wound healing. Wound macrophages produced higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in PPARγ-knock out mice compared with control. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Oncolytic HSV Virotherapy in Murine Sarcomas Differentially Triggers an Antitumor T-Cell Response in the Absence of Virus Permissivity
Multiple studies have indicated that in addition to direct oncolysis, virotherapy promotes an antitumor cytotoxic T cell response important for efficacy. To study this phenomenon further, investigators tested three syngeneic murine sarcoma models that displayed varied degrees of permissiveness to oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication and cytotoxicity in vitro, with the most permissive being comparable to some human sarcoma tumor lines. [Mol Ther Oncolytics] Full Article | Press Release

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Th9 Cells: A Novel CD4 T-Cell Subset in the Immune War against Cancer
Recently, a new population called Th9 cells was described. The authors summarize the latest advances in the Th9 field in cancer and focuses on their potential role as new tool for cell therapy. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Controlling the Fire — Tissue-Specific Mechanisms of Effector Regulatory T-Cell Homing
Investigators summarize information on the roles of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors in mediating regulatory T-cell migration and function throughout the body under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation research field.
MedImmune Establishes Three-Year Partnership with the National Cancer Institute to Advance Oncology Research
MedImmune announced that it has entered into two umbrella cooperative research and development agreements with the National Cancer Institute, a part of the National Institutes of Health, that are focused on immunotherapy and tumor targeted therapies for cancer. [MedImmune, LLC] Press Release

Novartis Cosentyx™ Is the First IL-17 Inhibitor to Receive EU Approval for First-Line Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis Patients
Novartis announced that the European Commission has approved Cosentyx™ (secukinumab) as a first-line systemic treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in adults who are candidates for systemic therapy. [Novartis AG] Press Release

Advaxis Announces FDA Acceptance of Its Investigational New Drug Application to Commence First-in-Human Clinical Trials of ADXS-HER2
Advaxis, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared its Investigational New Drug application to conduct a Phase I clinical study of ADXS-HER2 for the treatment of patients with metastatic HER2 expressing solid tumors. [Advaxis, Inc.] Press Release

ImmunID Announces Rapid Enrolment of Patients in Its PREDICT-ID Melanoma Clinical Trial for Prediction of Response to an Immunotherapy
ImmunID announced the enrolment of the first five patients in its PREDICT-ID Melanoma study to assess the predictive value of immune profiles for response to Ipilimumab®, an immunomodulatory agent. [ImmunID] Press Release

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NEW Cellular Therapy 2015 – 8th International Symposium on the Clinical Use of Cellular Products
March 19-20, 2015
Erlangen, Germany

NEW 28th Annual Canadian Society for Immunology (CSI) Conference
June 4-7, 2015
Winnipeg, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology Animal Models (The Technical University of Denmark)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Inflammatory Bowel Disease (The Technical University of Denmark)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – CNS Inflammation (Rutgers University)

Director (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine)

Senior Scientist – Immuno-Oncology (Merus B.V.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Inserm)

Postdoctoral Position – HIV and Ebolavirus (University of Missouri)

Faculty Position – Immunology (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (The University of Alabama at Birmingham)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Blood Research Institute, Blood Center of Wisconsin)

Product Manager Global Marketing – Autoimmunity (Thermo Fisher Scientific)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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