Volume 7.00 | Jan 9

Immune Regulation News 7.00 January 9, 2015
Immune Regulation News
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Skin Microbes Trigger Specific Immune Responses
New research in mice shows that the immune system in the skin develops distinct responses to the various microbes that naturally colonize the skin, referred to as commensals. Researchers found that each type of microbe triggers unique aspects of the immune system, suggesting that immune cells found in the skin can rapidly sense and respond to changes in microbial communities. [Press release from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Control of PI(3) Kinase in Treg Cells Maintains Homeostasis and Lineage Stability
Researchers found that control of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) was essential for lineage homeostasis and stability. Mice lacking Pten in Treg cells developed an autoimmune-lymphoproliferative disease characterized by excessive T helper type 1 responses and B cell activation. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Treg Cells Require the Phosphatase PTEN to Restrain TH1 and TFH Cell Responses
Investigators found that the phosphatase PTEN links regulatory T cells (Treg cells) cell stability to repression of type 1 helper T cell (TH1 cell) and follicular helper T cell (TFH cell) responses. Depletion of PTEN in Treg cells resulted in excessive TFH cell and germinal center responses and spontaneous inflammatory disease. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Sterol Metabolism Controls TH17 Differentiation by Generating Endogenous ​RORγ Agonists
Scientists report that during TH17 differentiation, ​cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake programs are induced, whereas their metabolism and efflux programs are suppressed. These changes result in the accumulation of the cholesterol precursor, ​desmosterol, which functions as a potent endogenous ​retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γ (​RORγt) agonist. [Nat Chem Biol] Abstract | Press Release

Proinflammatory TLR Signaling Is Regulated by a ​TRAF2-Dependent Proteolysis Mechanism in Macrophages
Researchers show that myeloid cell-specific ablation of ​TRAF2 greatly promotes toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages and exacerbates colitis in an animal model of inflammatory bowel disease. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Intracellular Osteopontin Regulates Homeostasis and Function of Natural Killer Cells
Scientists report that deficient expression of intracellular osteopontin by natural killer (NK) cells results in defective responses to IL-15 associated with a substantial increase in the NK cell contraction phase of homeostatic expansion, defective expression of the Eomes transcription factor, and diminished responses to metastatic tumors. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

miR-155 Augments CD8+ T-Cell Antitumor Activity in Lymphoreplete Hosts by Enhancing Responsiveness to Homeostatic γc Cytokines
Researchers found that microRNA-155 (miR-155) enabled tumor-specific CD8+ T cells to mediate profound antitumor responses in lymphoreplete hosts that were not potentiated by immune-ablation. miR-155 enhanced T-cell responsiveness to limited amounts of homeostatic γc cytokines, resulting in delayed cellular contraction and sustained cytokine production. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Syk Is Indispensable for CpG-Induced Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells
Investigators describe a so far unidentified spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-dependent pathway which is indispensable for CpG-induced human B cell activation. They show that triggering of B cells by CpG results in Syk and src kinase phosphorylation, proliferation, as well as cytokine and antibody production independent of the BCR. [Cell Mol Life Sci] Abstract

Effector T Cells Boost Regulatory T Cell Expansion by IL-2, TNF, OX40, and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Depending on the Immune Context
Activated effector CD4+ T cells can boost regulatory T (Treg) cell expansion through TNF or IL-2. Researchers further characterized this effector T cell-dependent Treg cell boost in vivo in mice. [J Immunol] Abstract

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Free Poster: Quick Reference for Mouse Immune Cell Frequencies and Percentages
Beyond Receptors and Signaling: Epigenetic Factors in the Regulation of Innate Immunity
The authors review the important contribution of epigenetic factors to the initiation, maintenance and training of innate immune responses. They explore how pathogens have hijacked these mechanisms for their benefit and the potential of small molecules targeting chromatin machinery as a way to boost or subdue the innate immune response in disease. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation research field.
La Jolla Institute Scientist Receives $1.6 Million Research Grant from American Diabetes Association
The American Diabetes Association has awarded La Jolla Institute researcher Stephanie Stanford, Ph.D., a $1.6 million grant to investigate the genetic and environmental factors that trigger the onset of type 1 diabetes. [La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology] Press Release

Isis Pharmaceuticals Announces Collaboration with Janssen to Discover and Develop RNA-Targeted Therapeutics for Autoimmune Diseases in the GI Tract
Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the company has entered into a global collaboration with Janssen Biotech, Inc. to discover and develop antisense drugs to treat autoimmune disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. [Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Sipuleucel-T in Prostate Cancer: Added Benefit Is Not Proven
The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care examined in a dossier assessment whether Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) offers patients an added benefit over one of the appropriate comparator therapies. [Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care] Press Release

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NEW American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) Annual Meeting
February 20-24, 2015
Houston, United States

NEW 34th European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Congress 2015
June 6-10, 2015
Barcelona, Spain

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Inserm)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – HIV and Ebolavirus (University of Missouri)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (UC San Diego)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Hospital for Special Surgery)

NEW Faculty Position – Immunology (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (The University of Alabama at Birmingham)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Blood Research Institute, Blood Center of Wisconsin)

Product Manager Global Marketing – Autoimmunity (Thermo Fisher Scientific)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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