Volume 6.45 | Nov 28

Immune Regulation News 6.45 November 28, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Vaccines May Make War on Cancer Personal
Scientists tested investigational vaccines in computer simulations, cell cultures and animal models. The results showed that the vaccines could enable the immune system to destroy or drive into remission a significant number of tumors. [Press release from Washington University in St. Louis discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Predicting Immunogenic Tumor Mutations by Combining Mass Spectrometry and Exome Sequencing
Scientists developed an approach that combines whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing analysis with mass spectrometry to identify neo-epitopes in two widely used murine tumor models. Vaccination of mice confirmed the approach, with each predicted immunogenic peptide yielding therapeutically active T-cell responses. [Nature] Abstract

STAT5 Programs a Distinct Subset of GM-CSF-Producing T Helper Cells that Is Essential for Autoimmune Neuroinflammation
Investigators show that loss of encephalitogenic activity of STAT5-deficient autoreactive CD4+ T cells was independent of IFN-γ or interleukin 17 production, but was due to the impaired expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a crucial mediator of T-cell pathogenicity. [Cell Res] Full Article | Press Release

The Immunoglobulin Tail Tyrosine Motif Upgrades Memory-Type BCRs by Incorporating a ​Grb2-​Btk Signaling Module
Researchers identified the immunoglobulin tail tyrosine motif in the cytoplasmic segments of membrane-bound IgGs as the principle signal amplification device of memory-type B-cell antigen receptors (BCRs) in higher vertebrates and decipher its signaling microanatomy. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Acquisition of an Immunosuppressive Protumorigenic Macrophage Phenotype Depending on c-Jun Phosphorylation
Macrophages in livers of mice with chronic hepatitis gradually switch their phenotype along the course of disease. Macrophage phenotype and density are dictated by c-Jun phosphorylation, in vitro and in vivo. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Docosahexaenoic Acid Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis by Generating Treg and IL-10/TGF-β-Modified Macrophage via TGF-β Dependent Mechanism
Investigators show that administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) up-regulates the generation of TGF-β-dependent CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). DHA induced T cell hypo-responsiveness and down-regulated cytokines associated with T helper (Th)-1, Th2, and Th17 cells. [J Invest Dermatol] Abstract

Platelets Promote Allergic Asthma through the Expression of CD154
Researchers demonstrate that during antigen sensitization, platelets can be activated by ovalbumin aerosol via the upregulation of CD154 expression. Platelet transfer promoted allergic asthma progression by inducing more severe leukocyte infiltration and lung inflammation, elevated IgE production and strengthened T helper 2 responses in asthma-induced mice. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Type I IFN Gene Delivery Suppresses Regulatory T Cells within Tumors
Investigators found that intratumoral interferon (IFN)-α gene transfer significantly decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) per CD4+ T cells in tumors. The concentration of a Treg-inhibitory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-6, was correlated with the IFN-α expression level in tumors, and intratumoral CD11c+ cells produced IL-6 in response to IFN-α stimulation. [Cancer Gene Ther] Abstract

Deletion of IFT20 in Early Stage T Lymphocyte Differentiation Inhibits the Development of Collagen-Induced Arthritis
Scientists deleted the IFT20 gene in early and later stages of T-cell development by crossing IFT20flox/flox mice with Lck-Cre and CD4-Cre transgenic mice, and investigated the role of IFT20 in T-cell maturation and in the development of T cell-mediated collagen-induced arthritis. [Bone Res] Full Article

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The IL-20 Subfamily of Cytokines – From Host Defense to Tissue Homeostasis
Members of the interleukin-20 (IL-20) subfamily facilitate the communication between leukocytes and epithelial cells, thereby enhancing innate defense mechanisms and tissue repair processes at epithelial surfaces. The authors describe the cellular sources and targets of the IL-20 subfamily cytokines, and detail how their expression is regulated. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Double Negative (DN) αβ T Cells: Misperception and Overdue Recognition
The authors offer a new model proposing that Fas-mediated apoptosis actively removes normally existing DN T cells from the periphery and that impaired Fas-mediated apoptosis leads to accumulation of these cells rather than de novo generation of DN T cells from activated CD4 or CD8 T cells. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

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Transposagen Biopharmaceuticals Enters into Research Collaboration and Worldwide License Agreement with Janssen for Allogeneic Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapies
Transposagen Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. announced they have entered into a research collaboration and worldwide license agreement with Janssen Biotech, Inc. to develop allogeneic CAR T-cells. [Transposagen Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

City of Hope Researchers Unlock the Potential of the Immune System to Fight Cancer
City of Hope is using chimeric antigen receptor, or CAR-T cell therapy, in clinical trials for leukemia, lymphoma and other hematologic malignancies. [City of Hope] Press Release

Regulatory Update on Transaction with Novartis
The US Federal Trade Commission has voted to approve GlaxoSmithKline plc. (GSK)’s proposed acquisition of Novartis’s vaccines business (excluding influenza vaccines) and the proposed creation of a consumer healthcare joint venture between GSK and Novartis. [GlaxoSmithKline plc.] Press Release

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