Volume 6.40 | Oct 24

Immune Regulation News 6.40 October 24, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Immune Cells in the Liver Drive Fatty Liver Disease and Liver Cancer
Scientists discovered that immune cells that migrate to the liver and interact there with liver tissue cells get activated by metabolic stress (e.g. through lipids of a high fat diet) and drive the development of fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver cancer. [Press release from Helmholtz Zentrum München discussing publication in Cancer Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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Dissecting the Tumor Myeloid Compartment Reveals Rare Activating Antigen-Presenting Cells Critical for T Cell Immunity
Across multiple mouse tumor models and human tumor biopsies, scientists have delineated the intratumoral dendritic cell (DC) populations as distinct from macrophage populations. Within these, CD103+ DCs are extremely sparse and yet remarkably capable cytotoxic T cell stimulators. [Cancer Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

miR-155 Promotes T Follicular Helper Cell Accumulation during Chronic, Low-Grade Inflammation
Upon analyzing lymphocytes from inflamed versus healthy middle-aged mice, researchers found elevated numbers of T follicular helper cells, germinal center B cells, and autoantibodies, all occurring in a miR-155-dependent manner. [Immunity] Abstract

A Minor Subset of Batf3-Dependent Antigen-Presenting Cells in Islets of Langerhans Is Essential for the Development of Autoimmune Diabetes
Investigators found that the islets of Langerhans in young nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice contained two antigen-presenting cell populations: a major macrophage and a minor CD103+ dendritic cell (DC) population. In order to examine the role of the CD103+ DCs in diabetes, they examined Batf3-deficient NOD mice that lacked the CD103+ DCs in islets and pancreatic lymph nodes. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Regulatory T Cells Suppress Muscle Inflammation and Injury in Muscular Dystrophy
Investigators examined the hypothesis that regulatory T cells (Tregs) modulate muscle injury and inflammation in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Although Tregs were largely absent in the muscle of wild-type mice and normal human muscle, they were present in necrotic lesions, displayed an activated phenotype, and showed increased expression of interleukin-10 in dystrophic muscle from mdx mice. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

MicroRNA-Mediated Regulation of mTOR Complex Components Facilitates Discrimination between Activation and Anergy in CD4 T Cells
Researchers investigated whether microRNAs affect the interpretation of T cell receptor signaling. They found that Dicer-deficient CD4 T cells fail to correctly discriminate between activating and anergy-inducing stimuli and produce IL-2 in the absence of co-stimulation. [J Exp Med] Abstract

​Interleukin-1α Released from HSV-1-Infected Keratinocytes Acts as a Functional Alarmin in the Skin
The authors report that herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-infected keratinocytes actively release the also pro-inflammatory ​interleukin (IL)-1α, preserving the ability of infected cells to signal danger to the surrounding tissue. In vivo recruitment of leukocytes to early HSV-1 microinfection sites within the epidermis is dependent upon IL-1 signaling. [Nat Commun] Abstract

TLR-Dependent Phagosome Tubulation in Dendritic Cells Promotes Phagosome Cross-Talk to Optimize MHC-II Antigen Presentation
Investigators show that phagosomal tubules in dendritic cells are functionally distinct from those that emerge from lysosomes and are unique adaptations of the phagocytic machinery that facilitate cargo exchange and antigen presentation among Toll-like receptor (TLR)-signaling phagosomes. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

CD8 T Cells in Innate Immune Responses: Using STAT4-Dependent but Antigen-Independent Pathways to Gamma Interferon during Viral Infection
Primary infections of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) demonstrate that although the elicited antigen-specific CD8 T cells acquired signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4)-dependent innate cytokine responsiveness for interferon (IFN)-γ and CD25 induction ex vivo, T cell receptor stimulation induced these through STAT4-independent pathways. During secondary infections, LCMV-immune CD8 T cells had STAT4-dependent IFN-γ expression at times of innate cytokine induction but subsequently expanded through STAT4-independent pathways. [mBio] Full Article | Press Release

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Immune Cells in Experimental Acute Kidney Injury
The authors describe what is currently known about the function of the immune system in the pathogenesis and repair of ischaemic and nephrotoxic acute kidney injury. [Nat Rev Nephrol] Abstract

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Aduro Presents Updated Interim Results from Phase Ib Clinical Trial
Aduro BioTech, Inc. announced the presentation of updated safety and efficacy data from an ongoing Phase Ib clinical trial of its novel immunotherapy CRS-207 in combination with standard chemotherapy in patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma. [Press release from Aduro BioTech, Inc. (Business Wire) discussing research presented at the International Mesothelioma Interest Group (iMig) Conference, Cape Town] Press Release

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Stellar Biotechnologies and Biovest International Sign KLH Supply Agreement for BiovaxID Immunotherapy for Follicular Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Stellar Biotechnologies, Inc. and Biovest International, Inc. announced that the companies have executed a definitive supply agreement to meet Biovest’s requirements for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) for use in Biovest’s BiovaxID® active immunotherapy to treat follicular non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
[Stellar Biotechnologies, Inc.]
Press Release

Lilly, Zymeworks Announce Expansion of Strategic Licensing and Collaboration Agreement
Zymeworks Inc. and Eli Lilly and Company announced the expansion of their existing licensing and collaboration agreement. The global strategic collaboration is focused on the development of an undisclosed number of novel bi-specific antibody therapeutics using Zymeworks’ proprietary Azymetric™ platform. [Zymeworks Inc.] Press Release

Novartis AIN457 (Secukinumab) Meets Primary Endpoint in Two Phase III Studies in Ankylosing Spondylitis, a Debilitating Joint Condition of the Spine
Novartis announced that secukinumab met primary and key secondary endpoints in two pivotal Phase III studies (MEASURE 1 and MEASURE 2) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. [Novartis AG] Press Release

Argos Therapeutics Breaks Ground on State-of-the-Art Biomanufacturing Facility in Research Triangle Park Area
Argos Therapeutics, Inc. broke ground on a new 100,000 square foot biomanufacturing facility in the Research Triangle Park area in Durham, North Carolina. [Argos Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release
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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Annual Scientific Meeting
November 6-10, 2014
Atlanta, United States

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Genetic and Epigenetic Regulatory Networks in Protective Immune Responses (Washington University School of Medicine)

Research Fellow – Immunology (Trinity College Dublin)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center – Harvard Medical School)

PhD Position – Immunoregulation (Jena University Hospital)

PhD Student – Calcium and Redox Signaling in Immune and Skin Cells (University of Saarland)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Development of Autoimmunity and Cancer (Mount Sinai Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Immune Response to Cancer (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Western New England University)

Faculty Positions – Cancer Immunotherapy and Tumor Microenvironment (NYU Langone Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Transplantation Aspects of Hepatocytes Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (INSERM UMR 1064)

PhD Studentship – Cancer Immunology (Cardiff University)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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