Volume 6.34 | Sep 12

Immune Regulation News 6.34 September 12, 2014
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Diversification of TAM Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Function
Investigators found that the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Axl and Mer had distinct roles as phagocytic receptors in tissue homeostasis and the resolution of inflammation, in which they exhibited divergent expression, regulation and activity. Mer acted as a tolerogenic receptor in resting macrophages and during immunosuppression. In contrast, Axl was an inflammatory response receptor whose expression was induced by proinflammatory stimuli. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release | Video
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Distinct Contributions of Aire and Antigen-Presenting-Cell Subsets to the Generation of Self-Tolerance in the Thymus
Investigators show that bone marrow antigen-presenting-cells and medullary thymic epithelial cells played nonoverlapping roles in shaping the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire by deletion and regulatory T cell selection of distinct TCRs. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

CD8αα+ Innate-Type Lymphocytes in the Intestinal Epithelium Mediate Mucosal Immunity
Researchers describe an innate lymphocyte population, iCD8α cells, characterized by expression of CD8α homodimers. iCD8α cells exhibit innate functional characteristics such as the capacity to engulf and kill bacteria. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Resident ​CD4+ T Cells Accumulate in Lymphoid Organs after Prolonged Antigen Exposure
Investigators analyzed the migration of effector/memory ​CD4+ T cells by long-term in vivo cell tracking. They identified a resident population of antigen-experienced ​CD4+ T cells that resides in lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches without circulation or proliferation. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Homeostatic IL-23 Receptor Signaling Limits Th17 Response through IL-22-Mediated Containment of Commensal Microbiota
Scientists demonstrate that the IL-23 pathway dynamically regulates the abundance of certain commensals and maintains barrier function. Through induction of IL-22, IL-23 contributes to barrier repair, and through induction of the Th17 response, it aims to neutralize escaped commensal microbes. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Polycomb-Mediated Loss of MicroRNA Let-7c Determines Inflammatory Macrophage Polarization via PAK1-Dependent NF-κB Pathway
Scientists show that inflammatory stimuli induced p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) overexpression in human and murine macrophages. Elevated expression of PAK1 contributed to macrophage M1 polarization and lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Dendritic Cell CD83 Homotypic Interactions Regulate Inflammation and Promote Mucosal Homeostasis
Investigators show that CD83, a highly regulated dendritic cell (DC) surface protein, modulates the immune response to prevent colitis. Mice with a conditional knockout of CD83 in DCs developed exacerbated colitis following dextran sodium sulfate challenge, whereas mucosal overexpression of CD83 inhibited DC inflammatory response and protected against colitis. [Mucosal Immunol] Full Article

Ectosomes Released by Platelets Induce Differentiation of CD4+ T Cells into T Regulatory Cells
The authors investigated the effects mediated by platelet-derived ectosomes (PLT-Ecto) on CD4+ T cells. Exposure of activated CD4+ T cells to PLT-Ecto decreased their release of IFNγ, TNFα and IL-6, and increased the production of TGF-β1. Concomitantly, PLT-Ecto-exposed CD4+ T cells displayed increased frequencies of CD25highFoxp3+ cells. [Thromb Haemost] Abstract | Download Full Article

Ligation of TLR5 Promotes Myeloid Cell Infiltration and Differentiation into Mature Osteoclasts in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Experimental Arthritis
Researchers examined the impact of TLR5 ligation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and experimental arthritis pathology. Studies were conducted to investigate the role of TLR5 ligation on RA and mouse myeloid cell chemotaxis or osteoclast formation, and in addition, to uncover the significance of TNF-α function in TLR5-mediated pathogenesis. [J Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Restriction of IL-22-Producing T Cell Responses and Differential Regulation of Regulatory T Cell Compartments by Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Ikaros
Scientists show that mice with targeted deletion of the fourth DNA-binding zinc finger of the transcription factor Ikaros had increased IL-22-producing, but not IL-17-producing, CD4+ T cells in the gut. Despite an intact in vivo thymic-derived regulatory T cell (Treg) compartment in these Ikaros-mutant mice, TGF-β, a cytokine well known for induction of Tregs, failed to induce Foxp3 expression in Ikaros-mutant CD4+ T cells in vitro and, instead, promoted IL-22. [J Immunol] Abstract

Induction of Suppressive Allogeneic Regulatory T-Cells via Rabbit-ATG during Homeostatic Proliferation in Rat Kidney Transplantation
Experimental studies have shown that rabbit antithymocyte polyclonal globulin (ATG) can expand human CD4+CD25++Foxp3+ cells. Researchers investigated the major biological effects of a self-manufactured rabbit polyclonal anti-rat thymoglobulin in vitro, as well as its effects on different peripheral T cell subsets. [Transpl Int] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Complement Modulation of T Cell Immune Responses during Homeostasis and Disease
A number of recent studies have identified previously unknown roles for complement proteins, receptors, and regulators in T cell function. The authors review recent data demonstrating the influence of complement proteins and complement regulators on T cell function during homeostasis and disease. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation research field.

Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics - December 7-11, 2014
 
SCIENCE NEWS
APC Announces Positive Results in Combination Cancer Immunotherapy
Advanced Proteome Therapeutics Corporation (APC) reported results from its current round of experiments that not only reinforce previous evidence of the immunotherapeutic properties of APC’s protein modification technology, but hold forth the possibility of synergistic effects with other immunotherapies while heralding the entry of a new and potentially powerful approach in the arsenal of anticancer weaponry. [Advanced Proteome Therapeutics Corporation (MarketWire L.P.)] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Cancer Research UK, Cancer Research Technology and Asterias Biotherapeutics Partner to Trial Immunotherapy Vaccine for Lung Cancer
Cancer Research UK and Cancer Research Technology have reached an agreement with Asterias Biotherapeutics, Inc. to take forward Asterias’ novel immunotherapy treatment AST-VAC2 into clinical trials in subjects with non-small cell lung cancer. [Asterias Biotherapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Altor BioScience and Shenzhen Beike Biotechnology Announce License Agreement for Immunotherapeutic ALT-803 in China
Altor BioScience Corporation and Shenzhen Beike Biotechnology Co., Ltd. announced that they have entered into a license agreement to develop and commercialize ALT-803, Altor’s proprietary Interleukin-15 based superagonist complex, in China. [Altor BioScience Corporation] Press Release

Initiation of Phase III IMPALA Study with Immunotherapy MGN1703 in Colorectal Cancer
MOLOGEN AG has enrolled the first patient in the international IMPALA study. Primary objective of the Phase III pivotal trial is to prove that a switch maintenance therapy with the cancer immunotherapy MGN1703 leads to an increased overall survival in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. [MOLOGEN AG] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Keystone Symposium – The Modes of Action of Vaccine Adjuvants (S1)
October 8-13, 2014
Seattle, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Western New England University)

NEW Research Scientist – Immunology (Institute of Virology and Immunology)

Faculty Positions – Cancer Immunotherapy and Tumor Microenvironment (NYU Langone Medical Center)

PhD Position – Anti-Cancer γδT Cells (Free University of Brussels)

Postdoctoral Position – Transplantation Aspects of Hepatocytes Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (INSERM UMR 1064 )

Assistant Professor – Immunology (Yale University)

Postdoctoral Position – Macrophages Functions (Cochin Institute)

PhD Studentship – Regulation of Metabolism and Inflammation in Innate Immune Cells (Goethe-University Frankfurt)

PhD Studentship – Cancer Immunology (Cardiff University)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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