Volume 6.31 | Aug 22

Immune Regulation News 6.31 August 22, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Alopecia Areata Is Driven by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Is Reversed by JAK Inhibition
Global transcriptional profiling of mouse and human alopecia areata skin revealed gene expression signatures indicative of cytotoxic T cell infiltration, an interferon-γ (IFN-γ) response and upregulation of several γ-chain cytokines known to promote the activation and survival of IFN-γ-producing CD8+NKG2D+ effector T cells. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release
A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
αβT Cell Receptors Expressed by CD4CD8αβ Intraepithelial T Cells Drive Their Fate into a Unique Lineage with Unusual MHC Reactivities
Researchers used T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing of single cells combined with retrogenic expression of TCRs to study the fate and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction of double negative TCRαβ+ intraepithelial T cells. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Activated Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses
Scientists show that upon IL-1β stimulation, peripheral group 3 innate lymphoid cells become activated, secrete cytokines, up-regulate surface MHC class II molecules, and express costimulatory molecules. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Engager T Cells: A New Class of Antigen-Specific T Cells that Redirect Bystander T Cells
Investigators generated T cells expressing a secretable T-cell engager specific for CD3 and EphA2, an antigen expressed on a broad range of human tumors (EphA2-ENG T cells). EphA2-ENG T cells were activated and recognized tumor cells in an antigen-dependent manner, redirected bystander T cells to tumor cells, and had potent antitumor activity in glioma and lung cancer SCID xenograft models associated with a significant survival benefit. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Innate Immune Cell CD45 Regulates Lymphopenia-Induced T Cell Proliferation
Scientists identify two deficiencies in CD45-RAG1 double-deficient mice that affect lymphopenia-induced proliferation. One involves CD11c+ cells and the second the production of IL-7 by lymphoid stromal cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

Heme Oxygenase-1 Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Murine Colitis by Regulating Th17/Treg Cell Balance
Scientists explored the immunological regulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of experimental murine colitis. Further study in vitro revealed that up-regulated HO-1 switched the naive T cells to regulatory T cells (Treg) when cultured under a Th17-inducing environment, which involved in IL-6R blockade. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

IL-15-Dependent CD8+CD122+ T Cells Ameliorate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Modulating IL-17 Production by CD4+ T Cells
Researchers suggest that interleukin (IL)-15, acting through CD8+CD122+ T cells, has a negative regulatory role in reducing IL-17 production and Th17-mediated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis inflammation. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

A B-1a Cell Subset Induces Foxp3 T Cells with Regulatory Activity through an IL-10-Independent Pathway
Researchers demonstrate that, similar to the reported B-2 cells, B-1a cells are able to convert naïve CD4+CD25 T cells into a subset of T cells with suppressive function, which they called ‘Treg-of-B1a’ cells. Treg-of-B1a cells do not express Foxp3, but upregulate the regulatory T markers OX40, programmed death 1, inducible costimulator and IL-10R. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Neuroantigen-Specific Autoregulatory CD8+ T Cells Inhibit Autoimmune Demyelination through Modulation of Dendritic Cell Function
Investigators show that central nervous system-CD8+ modulate the function of CD11c+ dendritic cells, but not other APCs such as CD11b+ monocytes or B220+ B cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Bystander Activation and Anti-Tumor Effects of CD8+ T Cells following Interleukin-2 Based Immunotherapy Is Independent of CD4+ T Cell Help
Utilizing CD4 deficient mouse models, researchers observed a significant expansion of bystander-memory T cells following immunotherapy combining agonistic anti-CD40 and IL-2, which was similar to the non-CD4 depleted mice. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Interactions between Innate and Adaptive Lymphocytes
The authors review the current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which T cells of the adaptive immune system function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

GATA-3 Function in Innate and Adaptive Immunity
The reviewers discuss the varied functions of GATA-3 in innate and adaptive immune cells, with emphasis on its activity in T cells and innate lymphoid cells, and examine the mechanistic basis for the dose-dependent, developmental-stage- and cell-lineage-specific activity of this transcription factor. [Immunity] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation research field.
Bristol-Myers Squibb and Celgene Enter Clinical Collaboration Agreement to Evaluate Immunotherapy and Chemotherapy Combination Regimen
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and Celgene Corporation announced the establishment of a clinical trial collaboration to evaluate the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of a combination regimen of Bristol-Myers Squibb’s investigational PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, OPDIVO, and Celgene’s nab® technology-based chemotherapy ABRAXANE®, in a Phase I study. [Bristol-Myers Squibb Company] Press Release

MorphoSys and Emergent BioSolutions Sign License Agreement to Co-Develop and Commercialize Prostate Cancer Drug Candidate ES414
MorphoSys AG and Emergent BioSolutions Inc. announced an agreement for the joint development and commercialization of ES414. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that ES414 redirects T-cell cytotoxicity towards prostate cancer cells expressing prostate specific membrane antigen. [MorphoSys AG] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 40th American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI) Annual Meeting
October 20-24, 2014
Denver, United States

NEW Cytokines Down Under 2014
October 26-29, 2014
Melbourne, Australia

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Research Scientist – Cellular Immunology and Oncology (Trillium Therapeutics Inc.)

NEW Assistant Professor – Immunology (Yale University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate-Adaptive Interface in Autoimmunity (Singapore Immunology Network)

Postdoctoral Research Assistant – Cardiovascular Inflammation (University of Oxford)

Postdoctoral Position – Macrophages Functions (Cochin Institute)

PhD Studentship – Regulation of Metabolism and Inflammation in Innate Immune Cells (Goethe-University Frankfurt)

PhD Studentship – Cancer Immunology (Cardiff University)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Virology (Cardiff University)

Postdoctoral Position – Human Heart Transplantation Immunology (Columbia University)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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