Volume 6.29 | Aug 8

Immune Regulation News 6.29 August 8, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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25-Hydroxycholesterol Suppresses Interleukin-1-Driven Inflammation Downstream of Type I Interferon
Researchers report that activated mouse macrophages lacking the type I interferon-stimulated gene cholesterol 25-hydroxylase and that are unable to produce the oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol overproduce inflammatory interleukin-1 family cytokines. [Science] Abstract
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Cell-Intrinsic Lysosomal Lipolysis Is Essential for Alternative Activation of Macrophages
Scientists found that the uptake of triacylglycerol substrates via the scavenger receptor CD36 and their subsequent lipolysis by lysosomal acid lipase was important for the engagement of elevated oxidative phosphorylation, enhanced spare respiratory capacity, prolonged survival and expression of genes that together define alternative activation. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Nitric Oxide Enhances Th9 Cell Differentiation and Airway Inflammation
Scientists show that ​nitric oxide (​NO) promotes Th9 cell polarization of murine and human ​CD4+ T cells. ​NO de-represses the tumor suppressor gene ​p53 via nitrosylation of ​Mdm2. [Nat Commun] Abstract

​Jarid2 Is Induced by TCR Signaling and Controls iNKT Cell Maturation
Researchers show that ​Jarid2 is upregulated upon TCR stimulation and during positive selection in the thymus. Mice lacking ​Jarid2 in T cells display an increase in the frequency of ​IL-4-producing ​promyelocytic leukemia zinc fingerhi immature invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and innate-like CD8+ cells. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Single-Cell Imaging of Caspase-1 Dynamics Reveals an All-or-None Inflammasome Signaling Response
Researchers conducted single-cell imaging using a genetic fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor that detects caspase-1 activation. They determined that caspase-1 exhibits all-or-none (digital) activation at the single-cell level, with similar activation kinetics irrespective of the type of inflammasome or the intensity of the stimulus. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Liver Metastases Induce Reversible Hepatic B Cell Dysfunction Mediated by Gr-1+CD11b+ Myeloid Cells
Scientists characterized HBC and HBC/CD11b+MC interactions using a murine model of LM. Tumor-bearing livers showed a trend toward elevated absolute numbers of CD19+ HBC. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

The S1P1 Receptor-Selective Agonist CYM-5442 Reduces the Severity of Acute GvHD by Inhibiting Macrophage Recruitment
Researchers investigated the effect of an sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)1-selective agonist, CYM-5442, on the progression of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD). CYM-5442 did not affect the infiltration of the donor T cells into the target organs, while the number of macrophages in GvHD organs was significantly reduced by CYM-5442 treatment. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Germinal Center B Cell Depletion Diminishes CD4+ Follicular T Helper Cells in Autoimmune Mice
Given the pathogenic role follicular CD4+ T helper (Tfh) play in autoimmune disease, researchers explored whether B cells are required for maintenance of autoreactive Tfh. Their data suggest that the number of mature autoreactive Tfh cells is controlled by germinal center B cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Ursolic Acid Ameliorates Autoimmune Arthritis via Suppression of Th17 and B Cell Differentiation
Scientists examined the effects of ursolic acid on collagen-induced arthritis in mice, and aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying the effects. [Acta Pharmacol Sin] Full Article

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Blocking Monoclonal Antibodies of TIM Proteins as Orchestrators of Anti-Tumor Immune Response
Therapeutic strategies based on anti-TIMs monoclonal antibody (mAbs) have shown promising results in experimental tumor models, and synergistic combinations of anti-TIMs mAbs with cancer vaccines, adoptive T-cell therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy will have great impact on cancer treatment in future clinical development. [mAbs] Abstract

The Mucosal Immune System in the Oral Cavity – An Orchestra of T Cell Diversity
Resesearchers summarize the features of the mucosal immune system, focusing on T cell subsets and their functions. They also discuss our current understanding of the oral-pharyngeal mucosal immune system. [Int J Oral Sci] Full Article

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Idera Pharmaceuticals and The Myositis Association Join Forces to Advance the Clinical Development of a Novel TLR Antagonist, IMO-8400, for the Treatment of Myositis
Idera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and The Myositis Association announced a collaboration to advance a new potential treatment approach for polymyositis and dermatomyositis known as Toll-like receptor (TLR) antagonism. [Idera Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

TapImmune’s New Clinical Trial in Advanced Stage Ovarian Cancer Expands the Use of Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Antigens
TapImmune Inc. announced that a new grant funded Phase I clinical study on the safety and Immunogenicity of folate receptor alpha peptide vaccine in patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer has started at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester. [TapImmune Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release

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NEW PhD Position – Development and Regulation of Innate Immunity (Lund University)

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