Volume 6.26 | Jul 18

Immune Regulation News 6.26 July 18, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Cellular Messaging – A New Approach to Treating Inflammatory Disease?
Researchers found that the recipient cells acquired specific microRNAs (miRNAs) from sender cells, indicating that miRNAs were being transferred between cells. By studying a model of colitis, they found that this form of communication was important for cells to prevent inflammatory cells from causing intestinal disease. [Press release from the National Institute for Medical Research discussing online publication in Immunity]
Press Release | Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Alarmin IL-33 Promotes Regulatory T-Cell Function in the Intestine
Researchers showed in mice that the interleukin (IL)-33 receptor ST2 is preferentially expressed on colonic regulatory T (Treg) cells, where it promotes Treg function and adaptation to the inflammatory environment. [Nature] Abstract

Functional Polarization of Tumor-Associated Macrophages by Tumor-Derived Lactic Acid
Investigators show that lactic acid produced by tumor cells, as a by-product of aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, has a critical function in signaling through inducing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the M2-like polarization of tumor-associated macrophages. [Nature] Abstract

Immunoglobulin E Signal Inhibition during Allergen Ingestion Leads to Reversal of Established Food Allergy and Induction of Regulatory T Cells
By using mice harboring a disinhibited form of the IL-4 receptor, investigators developed an adjuvant-free model of peanut allergy. Mast cells and immunoglobulin E were required for induction of antibody and T helper 2-cell-mediated responses to peanut ingestion and they impaired regulatory T cell induction. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Transcriptomics Identified a Critical Role for Th2 Cell-Intrinsic miR-155 in Mediating Allergy and Antihelminth Immunity
To identify targets in pathogenic Th2 cells, researchers took a comprehensive approach to identify the microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA transcriptome of highly purified cytokine-expressing Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, and Treg cells both generated in vitro and isolated ex vivo from allergy, infection, and autoimmune disease models. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Single Dose of Autologous Apoptotic Cells Preceding Transplantation Significantly Enhances Survival in Lethal Murine Graft versus Host Models
Scientists demonstrate that the use of extracorporeal photopheresis as a prophylaxis prior to conditioning significantly improves survival after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) by inhibiting the initiation phase of acute GvHD in a murine BMT model. [Blood] Abstract

Regulatory T Cells Prevent Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice
To test the hypothesis that adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells may dose-dependently inhibit the formation of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in apolipoprotein E knockout mice, scientists established an animal model of abdominal aortic aneurysm by angiotensin II infusion in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. [Hypertension] Abstract

A Dystrophic Muscle Broadens the Contribution and Activation of Immune Cells Reacting to rAAV Gene Transfer
Investigators compared dystrophic mice devoid of α-sarcoglycan with healthy mice to characterize immune cell activation and cellular populations contributing to the loss of gene-modified myofibers. Following recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV)2/1 delivery of an immunogenic α-sarcoglycan reporter transgene in the muscle, both strains developed strong CD4 and CD8 T-cell-mediated immune responses in lymphoid organs associated with muscle CD3+ T and CD11b+ mononuclear cell infiltrates. [Gene Ther] Full Article

Aberrant Innate Immune Activation following Tissue Injury Impairs Pancreatic Regeneration
Scientists used a combination of genetically modified mice, immunological blockade and cellular characterization to identify the immune cells that impact pancreatic regeneration in an in vivo model of pancreatitis. They identified the innate inflammatory response of macrophages and neutrophils as regulators of pancreatic regeneration. [PLoS One] Full Article

The Activating Effect of IFN-γ on Monocytes/Macrophages Is Regulated by the LIF-Trophoblast-IL-10 Axis via Stat1 Inhibition and Stat3 Activation
Because interferon (IFN)-γ induces a pro-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages and because trophoblast cells are principal targets of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in the placenta, scientists investigated whether and how soluble factors from trophoblast cells regulate the effects of IFN-γ on macrophage activation. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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Macrophages, Immunity, and Metabolic Disease
The authors discuss the pathophysiological link between macrophages, obesity, and insulin resistance, highlighting the dynamic immune cell regulation of adipose tissue inflammation. [Immunity] Abstract

The Outcome of B-Cell Receptor Signaling in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Proliferation or Anergy
Analysis of surface immunoglobulin-mediated signaling in the two major disease subsets defined by IGHV mutational status reveals bifurcation of responses toward proliferation or anergy. [Haematologica] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation research field.

Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics - December 7-11, 2014
A*STAR Partners with Roche to Develop New Cancer Therapeutics
A*STAR’s Bioprocessing Technology Institute has entered into an agreement with Roche to identify novel drug candidates for the detection and treatment of cancer. [Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)] Press Release

Imugene Engages Mymetics to Manufacture HER-Vaxx Cancer Immunotherapy
Imugene Limited has engaged Mymetics SA to exclusively manufacture and develop its cancer immunotherapy HER-Vaxx. HER-Vaxx has successfully completed a Phase I study in breast cancer and the next stage of development will be a Phase II study in gastric cancer. [Imugene Limited] Press Release

Lilly and Immunocore Enter Immunotherapy Agreement to Co-Discover and Co-Develop Novel Cancer Therapies
Eli Lilly and Company and Immunocore Limited announced they have entered into a co-discovery and co-development collaboration to research and potentially develop novel T cell-based cancer therapies. Using Immunocore’s Immune Mobilizing Monoclonal T-Cell Receptor Against Cancer (ImmTAC) technology, the companies will seek to use the power of the body’s own immune system to attack cancer cells. [Eli Lilly and Company] Press Release

CEL-SCI Receives $225,000 NIH Research Grant to Develop Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment
CEL-SCI Corporation announced that it has been awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research grant in the amount of $225,000 from the National Institute of Arthritis Muscoskeletal and Skin Diseases, which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). [CEL-SCI Corporation] Press Release

Alkermes Announces Initiation of Phase I Clinical Study of ALKS 8700 for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
Alkermes plc announced the initiation of a Phase I clinical study of ALKS 8700, a novel monomethyl fumarate molecule in development for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. [Alkermes plc] Press Release

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September 15-16, 2014
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Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Product Marketing Manager (Cesca Therapeutics)

Postdoctoral Position – Human Heart Transplantation Immunology (Columbia University)

Research Officer – Human Immunology (National Research Council Canada)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Mechanisms in Diabetes (Joslin Diabetes Center/Harvard Medical School)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Postdoctoral Positions – Inflammation in the Development of Chronic and Highly Prevalent Diseases (University of Pennsylvania and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Immune Focused In Vitro Analytics (Celentyx Ltd.)

Postdoctoral Position – Signaling and Gene Expression in Immune Cells (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Death and Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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