Volume 6.21 | Jun 13

Immune Regulation News 6.21 June 13, 2014
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Leukemia Drug Found to Stimulate Immunity against Many Cancer Types
A class of drug currently being used to treat leukemia has the unexpected side-effect of boosting immune responses against many different cancers. Researchers showed that inhibition of the p110δ enzyme helps to boost the body’s immune system to kill tumor cells. The data further shows that following p110δ inhibition, the immune system could develop an effective memory response to completely fight off the cancer. [Press release from University College London discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression
Multiple cycles of fasting abated the immunosuppression and mortality caused by chemotherapy and reversed age-dependent myeloid-bias in mice, in agreement with preliminary data on the protection of lymphocytes from chemotoxicity in fasting patients. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

B Cells Regulate Macrophage Phenotype and Response to Chemotherapy in Squamous Carcinomas
Although ineffective as a single agent, treatment of mice bearing preexisting squamous cell carcinomas with B cell-depleting αCD20 monoclonal antibodies improved response to platinum- and Taxol-based chemotherapy. Improved chemoresponsiveness was dependent on altered chemokine expression by macrophages that promoted tumor infiltration of activated CD8+ lymphocytes via CCR5-dependent mechanisms. [Cancer Cell] Abstract

Memory-T-Cell-Derived Interferon-γ Instructs Potent Innate Cell Activation for Protective Immunity
Researchers showed that memory T cells instruct innate cells to become potent effector cells in a systemic and a mucosal model of infection. Memory T cells controlled phagocyte, dendritic cell, and NK or NK T cell mobilization and induction of a strong program of differentiation, which included their expression of effector cytokines and microbicidal pathways, all of which were delayed in nonvaccinated hosts. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

The Glucose Transporter Glut1 Is Selectively Essential for CD4 T Cell Activation and Effector Function
Glut1 deficiency decreased effector T cells (Teff) expansion and the ability to induce inflammatory disease in vivo. Regulatory T cells, in contrast, were enriched in vivo and appeared functionally unaffected and able to suppress Teff, irrespective of Glut1 expression. [Cell Metab] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Differential Developmental Requirement and Peripheral Regulation for Dermal Vγ4 and Vγ6T17 Cells in Health and Inflammation
Investigators demonstrate that dermal γδT cells develop from the embryonic thymus and undergo homeostatic proliferation after birth with diversified TCR repertoire. Vγ6T cells are bona fide resident, but precursors of dermal Vγ4T cells may require extrathymic environment for imprinting skin-homing properties. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Short-Chain Fatty Acids Induce Both Effector and Regulatory T Cells by Suppression of Histone Deacetylases and Regulation of the mTOR-S6K Pathway
Researchers studied the function of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the regulation of T-cell differentiation into effector and regulatory T cells. They report that SCFAs can directly promote T-cell differentiation into T cells producing interleukin-17 (IL-17), interferon-γ, and/or IL-10 depending on cytokine milieu. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Proliferation Conditions Promote Intrinsic Changes in NK Cells for an IL-10 Response
A shift in NK cell function from predominantly producing IFN-γ, a cytokine with proinflammatory and antimicrobial functions, to producing the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 was defined during extended murine CMV infection. [J Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Glial Cells Suppress Postencephalitic CD8+ T Lymphocytes through PD-L1
Researchers investigated the role of glial cell programmed death ligand (PD-L1) in controlling encephalitogenic CD8+ T-lymphocytes, which infiltrate the brain to manage viral infection, but remain to produce chronic neuroinflammation. [Glia] Abstract

Neutrophil Transcriptional Profile Changes during Transit from Bone Marrow to Sites of Inflammation
Scientists hypothesized that neutrophils are transcriptionally active cells that alter their gene expression profiles as they migrate into the vasculature and then into inflamed tissues. They demonstrate that neutrophils are highly plastic cells where normal environmental cues result in a site-specific neutrophil transcriptome. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
The Multifactorial Role of Neutrophils in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophils have a previously unrecognized role in autoimmune diseases: neutrophils can release neutrophil extracellular traps containing chromatin associated with granule enzymes, which not only kill extracellular microorganisms but also provide a source of autoantigens. [Nat Rev Rheumatol] Abstract

BDCA3+CLEC9A+ Human Dendritic Cell Function and Development
Apart from being potent antigen presenting cells, their specialized functional capacities compared to other human dendritic cell (DC) subsets, indicate that BDCA3+CLEC9A+ DC cells are of major importance in the induction of anti-viral and anti-tumor immunity. [Semin Cell Dev Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.

Microbiology and Infectious Disease Congress 2014
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Five Scientific Communications Further Support DBV’s EPIT™ Disease Modifying Effect
DBV Technologies presented robust preclinical data. The data further confirms epicutaneous immunotherapy’s ability (EPIT™) to modulate over time immune responses due to a powerful T cell induction effect in allergic patients. [Press Release from DBV Technologies, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2014 European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Annual Meeting, Copenhagen] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
First-of-Its-Kind Pediatric Research and Funding Collaboration to Speed Development of Medications for Autoimmune Diseases
Seattle Children’s Research Institute and Kineta, Inc. launched the Alliance for Children’s Therapeutics, a first-of-its-kind pediatric research and funding collaboration designed to speed development of new medications for children and teens with lupus nephritis and other autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, Type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. [Seattle Children’s Research Institute] Press Release

X-Chem Enters into Multi-Target Collaboration with Pfizer Inc.
X-Chem, Inc. announced a multi-target collaboration with Pfizer Inc. The collaboration is focused on the potential development of several programs for the treatment of inflammatory and orphan diseases. [X-Chem, Inc.] Press Release

Navidea Biopharmaceuticals’ Lymphoseek® (Technetium Tc 99m Tilmanocept) Injection Demonstrates Preferential Accumulation in Tumor-Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Post-Hoc Analysis
Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. announced results from a post-hoc analysis of patient data from the Company’s Phase III clinical trial of Lymphoseek in head and neck cancer. The ability of Lymphoseek to localize in sentinel lymph nodes is based on its ability to target specific CD206 mannose receptor sites in macrophages, a type of immune cell which resides in high concentration in lymph nodes. [Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Kite Pharma Announces Exclusive License with the National Institutes of Health for T Cell Receptor-Based Products Targeting NY-ESO-1 for Multiple Cancer Indications
Kite Pharma, Inc. announced that it has entered into an exclusive, worldwide license with the National Institutes of Health to certain intellectual property related to T cell receptor-based product candidates that target the NY-ESO-1 antigen for the treatment of cancers expressing NY-ESO-1. [Kite Pharma, Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Synthetic Biology of Antibiotic Production II
August 30 – September 4, 2014
Sant Feliu de Guixols, Spain

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Signaling and Gene Expression in Immune Cells (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)

Cell Biologists – T Cell-Based Therapies (Adaptimmune)

Scientist – Immunology (Alector, LLC)

Postdoctoral Position – Biology of Memory B Cells (Medical Research Council)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Death and Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Microbiology and Immunology (McGill University)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Functional Cross-Talk between T Lymphocytes and NK Cells (Meharry Medical College School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Associate/Research Scientist – Macrophage Biology (Massachusetts Institute of Technology – MIT)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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