Volume 6.20 | Jun 6

Immune Regulation News 6.20 June 6, 2014
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Immune System Molecules May Promote Weight Loss
Researchers determined both interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 recruit macrophages to fat and that the production of molecules called catecholamines by the macrophages causes the browning of white fat. When the researchers inhibited interleukin 4 signaling in white fat, they found that the mice made less beige fat, burned less energy, and could no longer maintain normal body temperature in the cold. [Press release from UCSF discussing online prepublication in Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Activated T Cells Secrete an Alternatively Spliced Form of Common γ-Chain that Inhibits Cytokine Signaling and Exacerbates Inflammation
Activated T cells produced an alternatively spliced form of γ-chain (γc) mRNA that resulted in protein expression and secretion of the γc extracellular domain. The soluble form of γc was present in serum and directly bound to IL-2Rβ and IL-7Rα proteins on T cells to inhibit cytokine signaling and promote inflammation. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Transplanted Terminally Differentiated Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Are Accepted by Immune Mechanisms Similar to Self-Tolerance
Scientists showed in murine models that autologous induced puripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells elicit an immune response that resembles the one against a comparable somatic cell, the aortic endothelial cell. These cells exhibit long-term survival in vivo and prompt a tolerogenic immune response characterized by elevated IL-10 expression. [Nat Commun] Abstract | Press Release

FcγRIIB Regulates T-Cell Autoreactivity, ANCA Production, and Neutrophil Activation to Suppress Anti-Myeloperoxidase Glomerulonephritis
Transfer of FcγRIIB-deficient dendritic cells loaded with a nephritogenic myeloperoxidase peptide (MPO409-428) into wild-type mice induced stronger autoimmunity than dendritic cells derived from wild-type mice. [Kidney Int] Abstract

Activation of mTOR Pathway in Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Stimulates Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in lal−/− Mice
Investigators report that myeloid-derived suppressor cells from lysosomal acid lipase-deficient (lal−/−) mice directly stimulated B16 melanoma cell in vitro proliferation and in vivo growth and metastasis. [Oncogene] Abstract

Bovine γδ T Cells Are a Major Regulatory T Cell Subset
Researchers provided evidence showing bovine γδ T cells are the major regulatory T cell subset in peripheral blood. These γδ T cells spontaneously secrete IL-10 and proliferate in response to IL-10, TGF-β, and contact with APCs. [J Immunol] Abstract

Antigen-Specific Thymocyte Feedback Regulates Homeostatic Thymic Conventional Dendritic Cell Maturation
Cross-talk with thymocytes regulates thymic conventional dendritic cell (cDC) numbers, phenotype, and function. In mice lacking TCR-expressing thymocytes, thymic cDC were reduced and exhibited a less mature phenotype. [J Immunol] Abstract

Early Treatment with Anti-VLA-4 Monoclonal Antibody Can Prevent the Infiltration and/or Development of Pathogenic CD11b+CD4+ T Cells in the CNS during Progressive EAE
Investigators assessed the effects of anti-very late antigen (VLA)-4 monoclonal antibody therapy in a progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. They observed the accumulation of a novel subset of GM-CSF-producing CD11b+CD4+ T cells in the CNS throughout disease progression. [PLoS One] Full Article

B7-H1 Signaling Is Integrated during CD8+ T Cell Priming and Restrains Effector Differentiation
Using a brief in vitro priming model, researchers found that B7-H1 expressed by activated dendritic cells is integrated during priming of naïve CD8+ T cells and functions to limit the differentiation of effector T cell responses. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract

Combination of an Agonistic Anti-CD40 Monoclonal Antibody and the COX-2 Inhibitor Celecoxib Induces Anti-Glioma Effects by Promotion of Type-1 Immunity in Myeloid Cells and T-Cells
The combination therapy significantly increased the frequency of CD8+ T-cells, enhanced IFN-γ-production and reduced CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in the brain, and induced tumor-antigen-specific T-cell responses in lymph nodes. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract

Interleukin-37 Mediates the Antitumor Activity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Role for CD57+ NK Cells
Interleukin (IL)-37 expression in tumor tissues was positively associated with the density of tumor-infiltrating CD57+ natural killer (NK) cells, but not with the CD3+ and CD8+ T cells. Consistently, in vitro chemotaxis analysis showed that IL-37-overexpressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells could recruit more NK cells. [Sci Rep] Abstract

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REVIEWS
T Cells and Their Cytokines in Persistent Stimulation of the Immune System
The authors focus on how the T cells age chronologically and within a persistent infection context. The main characteristics of aged and/or differentiated T cells included telomere erosion, reduction of proliferation, decrease of IL-2 secretion and responsiveness, loss of CD28 and acquisition of cytotoxic properties. [Curr Opin Immunol] Abstract

The Role of Invariant NKT Cells in Organ-Specific Autoimmunity
The authors review the current knowledge on invariant NKT (iNKT) cell biology and focus on the possible mechanism of action and final effect of the different iNKT cell subsets in the pathogenesis of T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. [Front Biosci (Landmark Ed)] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Medigene AG: Trianta Receives BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Research) Grant for TABs Immunotherapy as Part of the “m4 Leading-Edge Cluster Initiative”
Medigene AG announced its subsidiary Trianta Immunotherapies GmbH will receive public funding for the development of its immunotherapy platform TABs (T-cell-specific antibodies) for the treatment of various types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. [Medigene AG] Press Release

Cellectis and Accelera (Nerviano Medical Sciences Group) Sign an Agreement to Complete Preclinical Studies of Cellectis’ Lead Product Candidate UCART19
Cellectis and Accelera signed an agreement to complete the preclinical studies of Cellectis’ advanced product candidate, UCART19. Engineered allogeneic CD19 T-cells currently stand out as a real therapeutic innovation for treating B-cell leukemias and lymphomas. [Cellectis] Press Release

arGEN-X Enters Long-Term Strategic Alliance with Shire Pharmaceuticals in Therapeutic Antibodies
arGEN-X announced it has entered into a long-term strategic alliance with Shire Pharmaceuticals. Under the agreement, arGEN-X will bring its entire suite of human antibody discovery technologies to a partnership focused on multiple targets aligned with Shire’s therapeutic focus. [arGEN-X BV] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Natural Killer Cell Symposium
September 10-12, 2014
Hannover, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Cell Biologists – T Cell-Based Therapies (Adaptimmune)

Scientist – Immunology (Alector, LLC)

Postdoctoral Position – Biology of Memory B Cells (Medical Research Council)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Allergic Lung Inflammation (Singapore Immunology Network)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Death and Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Microbiology and Immunology (McGill University)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Functional Cross-Talk between T Lymphocytes and NK Cells (Meharry Medical College School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Associate/Research Scientist – Macrophage Biology (Massachusetts Institute of Technology – MIT)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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