Volume 6.14 | Apr 25

Immune Regulation News 6.14 April 25, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Major Breakthrough Unravels Tissue Macrophage Specialization
Researchers have uncovered how macrophages become specialized for their role in tissue homeostasis in the peritoneal cavity of the abdomen. How these cells specialize is key to understanding how they initiate and control inflammation. Having identified a single protein as a master controller of these processes, the scientists can now begin to unlock the secrets that promote healthy tissue function and control inflammation and apply these in a clinical setting. [Press release from Cardiff University discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Single-Cell Trajectory Detection Uncovers Progression and Regulatory Coordination in Human B Cell Development
Applied to human B cell lymphopoiesis, researchers’ algorithm (termed Wanderlust) constructed trajectories spanning from hematopoietic stem cells through to naive B cells. This trajectory revealed nascent fractions of B cell progenitors and aligned them with developmentally cued regulatory signaling including IL-7/STAT5 and cellular events such as immunoglobulin rearrangement, highlighting checkpoints across which regulatory signals are rewired paralleling changes in cellular state. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Selective Uptake of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Circulating Monocytes for Enhanced Tumor Delivery
Researchers showed that, in addition to conventional nanoparticle-uptake mechanisms, single-walled carbon nanotubes are almost exclusively taken up by a single immune cell subset, Ly-6Chi monocytes (almost 100% uptake in Ly-6Chi monocytes, below 3% in all other circulating cells), and delivered to the tumor in mice. [Nat Nanotechnol] Abstract | Press Release

The AGC Kinase SGK1 Regulates TH1 and TH2 Differentiation Downstream of the mTORC2 Complex
Researchers found that after activation by mTORC2, SGK1 promoted T helper type 2 (TH2) differentiation by negatively regulating degradation of the transcription factor JunB mediated by the E3 ligase Nedd4-2. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Immunosuppression in Acutely Decompensated Cirrhosis Is Mediated by Prostaglandin E2
Researchers observed elevated circulating concentrations (more than seven times as high as in healthy volunteers) of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis. Plasma from these and patients with end-stage liver disease suppressed macrophage proinflammatory cytokine secretion and bacterial killing in vitro in a PGE2-dependent manner via the prostanoid type E receptor-2, effects not seen with plasma from patients with stable cirrhosis (Child-Pugh score grade A). [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

Cholinergic Neurotransmission Links Solitary Chemosensory Cells to Nasal Inflammation
Investigators tested whether activation of nasal solitary chemosensory cells can trigger similar local inflammatory responses, specifically mast cell degranulation and plasma leakage. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Low TCR Signal Strength Induces Combined Expansion of Th2 and Regulatory T Cell Populations that Protect Mice from the Development of Type 1 Diabetes
Weak stimulation of CD4+ T cells with dendritic cells and low-dose antigen expands a combination of antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs), T helper (Th) 2 and type 1 regulatory cells that prevent autoimmunity, without the need to target or purify specific Treg populations. [Diabetologia] Abstract

Constitutive Expression of Murine c-FLIPR Causes Autoimmunity in Aged Mice
To investigate the functional role of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein-Raji (c-FLIPR) in the immune system, researchers used the vavFLIPR mouse model constitutively expressing murine c-FLIPR in all hematopoietic compartments. They identified reduced levels of T cells and slightly higher levels of B cells in 1-year-old vavFLIPR mice compared with wild-type littermates. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article | Press Release

Chemerin Suppresses Murine Allergic Asthma by Inhibiting CCL2 Production and Subsequent Airway Recruitment of Inflammatory Dendritic Cells
The authors demonstrated that chemerin plays a protective role in allergic asthma by suppressing airway recruitment of inflammatory CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells through the inhibition of CCL2 secretion by active lung epithelial cells. [Allergy] Abstract

Ezh2 Regulates Transcriptional and Posttranslational Expression of T-bet and Promotes Th1 Cell Responses Mediating Aplastic Anemia in Mice
To elucidate whether Ezh2 mediates pathogenic Th1 responses in aplastic anemia (AA) and the mechanism of Ezh2 action in regulating Th1 cells, researchers studied the effects of Ezh2 inhibition in CD4+ T cells using a mouse model of human AA. [J Immunol] Abstract

The Mucosal Adjuvant Cyclic di-AMP Exerts Immune Stimulatory Effects on Dendritic Cells and Macrophages
Investigators report on the identification of dendritic cells and macrophages as target cells of cyclic di-nucleotide bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP). They showed that c-di-AMP induces the cell surface up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory molecules as well as the production of interferon-β. [PLoS One] Full Article

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IL-17+Foxp3+ T Cells: An Intermediate Differentiation Stage between Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells
The authors highlight significant data regarding the phenotype profile, origination, differentiation, and the pleiotropic functions of IL-17+Foxp3+ T cells and the reciprocal relationships of these cells to Tregs and Th17 cells. Furthermore, the role of IL-17+Foxp3+ T cells in tumorigenesis and clinical implications in cancer therapy are discussed. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

Role of Interleukin-6 in Regulation of Immune Responses to Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction
This review focuses on the role of interleukin-6 that dominates cell-mediated immunity, especially on neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts. In addition, the authors also briefly discuss other inflammatory cytokines involved in this process within the paper. [Heart Fail Rev] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.

2nd Annual Phacilitate Partnering for Biologic Emerging Markets
Study Suggests Targeting B Cells May Help with MS
A new study suggests that targeting B cells may be associated with reduced disease activity for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The researchers found that when B cells were reduced to below a threshold of 64 cells per microliter, disease activity, as measured by appearance of new brain lesions, was significantly reduced. [Press release from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) discussing research presented at the AAN’s 66th Annual Meeting, Philadelphia] Press Release

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NeoStem Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire California Stem Cell, Inc.
NeoStem, Inc. announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire California Stem Cell, Inc. As a result of this acquisition, NeoStem plans to initiate a pivotal Phase III trial of Melapuldencel-T, an autologous melanoma initiating (stem) cell immune based therapy intended to eliminate the tumor cells capable of causing disease recurrence. [NeoStem, Inc.] Press Release

For an Immune Cell, Microgravity Mimics Aging
Certain cells of the immune system tend to misbehave with age, leaving the elderly more vulnerable to illness. Because these cells are known to misbehave similarly during spaceflight, researchers are studying the effects of microgravity on immune cells to better understand how our immune systems change as we age. [NASA]
Press Release

New Center Aims to Use Immune System to Fight Cancer, Other Diseases
A new center at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis will help scientists use the power of the immune system to fight infections and cancers. The Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs is part of BioMed21, the university’s initiative to accelerate basic science discoveries into improved diagnosis and treatment for patients. [Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 11th International Conference on Innate Immunity
June 1-6, 2014
Olympia, Greece

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Immunology (Biomedical Sciences Research Center “Alexander Fleming”)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Immune Reactions to Biomedical Devices, Implants and Transplant (National University of Ireland, Galway)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuro-Immune Interactions (ICM Foundation – Brain and Spinal Cord Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Infection and Immunity (University College London)

Postdoctoral Associate – Immunology (Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (University of Pittsburgh)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Professor – Cancer Research (Yale University School of Medicine)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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