Volume 6.12 | Apr 4

Immune Regulation News 6.12 April 4, 2014
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Immune Cell Defenders Protect Us from Bacteria Invasion
Researchers identified the exact biochemical key that awakes the body’s immune cells and sends them into fight against bacteria and fungi. The immune cells, known as mucosal-associated invariant T cells, initiate the immune system’s action against foreign invaders when they are exposed to vitamin B2, which is made by bacteria and fungi. [Press release from the University of Melbourne discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Adaptor TRAF5 Limits the Differentiation of Inflammatory CD4+ T Cells by Antagonizing Signaling via the Receptor for IL-6
Investigators found that in the presence of interleukin 6 (IL-6), naive tumor-necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-deficient CD4+ T cells showed an enhanced ability to differentiate into the TH17 subset of helper T cells. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Clonal Tracking of Rhesus Macaque Hematopoiesis Highlights a Distinct Lineage Origin for Natural Killer Cells
Researchers applied quantitative genetic barcoding to track the clonal output of transplanted autologous rhesus macaque hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells over a time period of up to 9.5 months. Surprisingly, reconstitution of the natural killer (NK) cell lineage, and particularly the major CD16+/CD56 peripheral blood NK compartment, showed limited clonal overlap with T, B, or myeloid lineages, and therefore appears to be ontologically distinct. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

TIM-1 Glycoprotein Binds the Adhesion Receptor P-Selectin and Mediates T Cell Trafficking during Inflammation and Autoimmunity
Investigators reported that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a P-selectin ligand. They have shown that human and murine TIM-1 binds to P-selectin, and that TIM-1 mediates tethering and rolling of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17, but not Th2 and regulatory T cells on P-selectin. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Cryptic MHC Class I-Binding Peptides Are Revealed by Aminoglycoside-Induced Stop Codon Read-Through into the 3′ UTR
Using a recombinant virus-expression system in tissue culture and in mice, researchers demonstrated that gentamicin can induce expression and MHC class I presentation of a model epitope encoded downstream of a premature termination codon at levels sufficient to activate CD8+ T cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Press Release

Differential Roles of Epigenetic Changes and Foxp3 Expression in Regulatory T Cell-Specific Transcriptional Regulation
By transcriptional start site cluster analysis, researchers assessed how genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation or Foxp3 binding sites were associated with regulatory T cell-specific gene expression. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Alternatively Activated Macrophages Derived from Monocytes and Tissue Macrophages Are Phenotypically and Functionally Distinct
By transcriptional profiling analysis, researchers showed that while both monocyte and tissue-derived alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) expressed high levels of Arg1, Chi3l3 and Retnla, only monocyte-derived AAM upregulated Raldh2 and PD-L2. [Blood] Abstract

Naive Idiotope-Specific B and T Cells Collaborate Efficiently in the Absence of Dendritic Cells
Scientists showed that previously unstimulated (naive) idiotope (Id)-specific B and T cells collaborate efficiently in vivo, even at low frequencies and in the presence of low amounts of Id+ Ig, resulting in germinal center formation, plasma cell development, and secretion of isotype-switched anti-Id Abs. [J Immunol] Abstract

CTLA-4 Is Expressed by Activated Mouse NK Cells and Inhibits NK Cell IFN-γ Production in Response to Mature Dendritic Cells
The authors provide insight into the regulation and function of additional receptors involved in mouse NK cell responses: CTLA-4 and CD28. CTLA-4 and CD28 engage the same ligands, B7-1 and B7-2, which are primarily expressed by APCs, such as dendritic cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

Programmed Cell Death-1 Deficiency Exacerbates T Cell Activation and Atherogenesis Despite Expansion of Regulatory T Cells in Atherosclerosis-Prone Mice
Scientists investigated the role of the co-inhibitory receptor programmed cell death-1 in T cell activation and CD4+ T cell polarization towards pro-atherogenic or atheroprotective responses in mice. [PLoS One] Full Article

GILZ Promotes Production of Peripherally Induced Treg Cells and Mediates the Crosstalk between Glucocorticoids and TGF-β Signaling
Researchers report that glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a protein induced by glucocorticoids, promotes regulatory T (Treg) cell production. [Cell Rep] Abstract | Full Article | Graphical Abstract

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Air-Liquid Interface Culture for Respiratory Research: Watch Q&A Video
 
REVIEWS
In Search of Magic Bullets: The Golden Age of Immunotherapeutics
As the complexity and diversity of the immune response are unveiled, targeted cellular and molecular therapies now offer rational approaches to treat immune-mediated diseases. Here, the authors discuss how the tried and true bench-to-bedside strategies resulted in some spectacular successes, along with some puzzling failures. [Cell] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Adaptimmune Integrates BioLife Solutions CryoStor® Cell Freeze Media in Cancer Immunotherapy Clinical Trial
BioLife Solutions, Inc. announced that Oxford, UK and Philadelphia, PA-based Adaptimmune Ltd has adopted the Company’s CryoStor clinical grade cell freeze media for use in Adaptimmune’s current Phase I/II clinical trial CT Antigen TCR-Engineered T Cells for Myeloma. [BioLife Solutions, Inc.] Press Release

Kite Pharma Announces FDA Orphan Drug Designation for Anti-CD19 T Cell Cancer Immunotherapy Product
Kite Pharma, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Office of Orphan Products Development granted orphan drug designation for the Company’s lead investigational therapy, an autologous engineered T cell product that targets CD19 expression on B cell malignancies, for the treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

PD-1 Gene Expression Profiles for Drug Development US Patent Awarded to VGTI Florida® Scientists
The Vaccine and Gene Institute of Florida (VGTI Florida) announced that the US Patent and Trademark Office awarded VGTI Florida scientists Dr. Rafick-Pierre Sékaly, PhD and Dr. Elias Haddad, PhD U.S. Patent No. 8,647,822 titled “Determining Whether a Test Compound Modulates PD-1 Activity in Activated Immune Cells Using Gene Expression Profiles”. [Vaccine and Gene Institute of Florida] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCiS) 2014: Spotlight on Translational Immunology
June 25-28, 2014
Chicago, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Associate – Immunology (Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech)

NEW Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (University of Pittsburgh)

Senior Scientist – Tumor Immunotherapy (Bayer Pharma AG)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Molecular Mechanisms of Leukemia Immune Evasion (San Raffaele Scientific Institute)

PhD Student – Immunometabolic Networks Regulating the Innate Immune Response (Radboud University Medical Center)

Staff Scientists – Immunology (GlaxoSmithKline)

Research Group Leader – Basic Mechanisms and Regulation of Inflammation (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)

Professor – Cancer Research (Yale University School of Medicine)

Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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