Volume 6.11 | Mar 28

Immune Regulation News 6.11 March 28, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Researchers Discover Cancer Camouflage
Researchers discovered that a key protein on the surface of immune cells helps to camouflage cancer, offering a new treatment target. They showed that the CD96 protein prevents the body’s natural immune cells from responding to cues from cancer cells. [Press release from QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute discussing online prepublication in Nature Immunology] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Segmented Filamentous Bacteria Antigens Presented by Intestinal Dendritic Cells Drive Mucosal Th17 Cell Differentiation
Scientists showed that MHCII-dependent antigen presentation of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) antigens by intestinal dendritic cells is crucial for T helper 17 (Th17) cell induction. Expression of MHCII on CD11c+ cells was necessary and sufficient for SFB-induced Th17 cell differentiation. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Epigenetic Plasticity of Cd8a Locus during CD8+ T-Cell Development and Effector Differentiation and Reprogramming
Modulation of CD8 coreceptor levels can profoundly affect T-cell sensitivity to antigen. Investigators showed that the heritable downregulation of CD8 during type 2 polarization of murine CD8+ effector T cells in vitro and in vivo is associated with CpG methylation of several regions of the Cd8a locus. [Nat Commun] Full Article

T Cells Down-Regulate Macrophage TNF Production by IRAK1-Mediated IL-10 Expression and Control Innate Hyperinflammation
Scientists reported that T cells are shown to interact with macrophages at the early stage of enodotoxemia and to prolong survival of mice through controlling TNF and IL-10 levels by macrophage CD40 stimulation. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Persistence of Skin-Resident Memory T Cells within an Epidermal Niche
Investigators demonstrated prolonged persistence of epidermal tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) preferentially at the site of prior infection despite sustained migration. Formation of TRM involved a concomitant local reduction in dendritic epidermal γδ T-cell numbers in the epidermis, indicating that these populations persist in mutual exclusion and may compete for local survival signals. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

p57 Regulates T Cell Development and Prevents Lymphomagenesis by Balancing p53 Activity and Pre-TCR Signaling
Researchers showed that mice with T cell-specific deficiency of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57 manifest a differentiation block at the early stage of T cell maturation. [Blood] Abstract

Engagement of SLAMF2/CD48 Prolongs the Time Frame of Effective T Cell Activation by Supporting Mature Dendritic Cell Survival
Investigators found that cytosolic DNA-activated dendritic cells (DCs) upregulate the expression of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family (SLAMF)2 molecules. Using anti-SLAMF2 Ab and SLAMF4 recombinant protein, they found that SLAMF2 engagement activates immature DCs and, more interestingly, prolongs the survival of DNA-activated DCs by inhibiting IFN-β production and IFN-β-induced apoptosis and promotes the production of the granzyme B inhibitor protease inhibitor-9. [J Immunol] Abstract

Regulatory CD4+ T Cells Promote B Cell Anergy in Murine Lupus
Researchers previously reported that CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) can directly suppress autoantibody-producing autoreactive B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. Here they showed that Tregs can also reduce the production of autoantibodies in (NZB × NZW)F1 mouse lupus B cells by promoting B cell anergy, both in vitro and in vivo. [J Immunol] Abstract

Direct T Cell Activation via CD40 Ligand Generates High Avidity CD8+ T Cells Capable of Breaking Immunological Tolerance for the Control of Tumors
Two tumor-associated antigen animal models, p53-based and GP100-based, were utilized to examine the ability of CD40-CD40 ligand to improve antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated antitumor immune responses. [PLoS One] Full Article

IL-15 Trans-Presentation Regulates Homeostasis of CD4+ T Lymphocytes
Researchers described a hitherto unreported role of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in regulating homoeostasis of naive CD4+ T cells. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Comparison of the Innate Immune Responses of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells and Splenic Dendritic Cells Stimulated with LPS
The authors investigated the activation and maturation of porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and splenic DCs subpopulations following LPS stimulation. [Innate Immun] Abstract

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The Establishment of B versus T Cell Identity
The authors review the distinct regulatory networks that establish B versus T cell identity, and how genomic architecture and location of genes is modulated in these lineage decisions. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

Phenotypic Alterations, Clinical Impact and Therapeutic Potential of Regulatory T Cells in Cancer
The authors systematically review the clinical impact of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in cancer and their potential as a therapeutic target, with a focus on tumor-infiltrating Tregs. [Expert Opin Biol Ther] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.

2nd Annual Phacilitate Partnering for Biologic Emerging Markets
Biothera Presents Phase IIb NSCLC Data
Biothera will give a presentation about its randomized trial in patients with previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) evaluating their immunotherapy drug, Imprime PGG®. The study met its primary endpoint and showed a statistically significant improvement in objective response rate, more than double that of the control group. [Press release from Biothera discussing research presented at the European Lung Cancer Conference 2014, Geneva] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free Nature Reviews Immunology poster – Immune Response to HIV. Request a copy.
Adaptimmune Announces Award of £2.1 Million from the Biomedical Catalyst Fund
Adaptimmune has been awarded a grant of £2.1 million from the Biomedical Catalyst Fund, managed by the UK’s innovation agency the Technology Strategy Board and the Medical Research Council. The prestigious award will expedite the development of Adaptimmune’s second engineered T cell therapy program into the clinic in triple negative breast cancer. [Adaptimune Limited] Press Release

Medigene’s Dendritic Cell Vaccines Program Strengthened by Issued US Patent
Medigene AG announced that the US Patent Office has issued patent No. 8,679,840 “Composition for the preparation of mature dendritic cells”, relating to the manufacturing of mature dendritic cells developed by Medigene’s wholly owned subsidiary Trianta Immunotherapies. [Medigene AG] Press Release

Cellular Biomedicine Group Releases Positive Results from Phase I Clinical Trial for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Cellular Biomedicine Group, Inc. announced positive results from its Phase I clinical trial, which evaluated the safety of Tumor Stem Cell Specific Dendritic Cell therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common type of liver cancer. [Cellular Biomedicine Group, Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 28th European Immunogenetics and Histocompatibility Conference
June 25-28, 2014
Stockholm, Sweden

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (University of Pittsburgh)

Senior Scientist – Tumor Immunotherapy (Bayer Pharma AG)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Molecular Mechanisms of Leukemia Immune Evasion (San Raffaele Scientific Institute)

PhD Student – Immunometabolic Networks Regulating the Innate Immune Response (Radboud University Medical Center)

Staff Scientists – Immunology (GlaxoSmithKline)

Research Group Leader – Basic Mechanisms and Regulation of Inflammation (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)

Professor – Cancer Research (Yale University School of Medicine)

Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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