Volume 6.09 | Mar 14

Immune Regulation News 6.09 March 14, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Scientists Catch Brain Damage in the Act
The authors showed that the combination of inflammation and hypoxia activates microglia in a way that persistently weakens the connection between neurons. The phenomenon, known as long-term depression, has been shown to contribute to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease. [Press release from the University of British Columbia discussing online prepublication in Neuron] Press Release | Abstract | Video
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Negative Regulation of Hif1a Expression and TH17 Differentiation by the Hypoxia-Regulated MicroRNA miR-210
Investigators identified Hif1a as a target of miR-210, which suggested negative feedback by miR-210 in inhibiting HIF-1α expression. Deletion of Mir210 promoted TH17 differentiation under conditions of limited oxygen. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Chitin Activates Parallel Immune Modules that Direct Distinct Inflammatory Responses via Innate Lymphoid Type 2 and γδ T Cells
Researchers showed that inhaled chitin induced expression of three epithelial cytokines, interleukin-25 (IL-25), IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which nonredundantly activated resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells to express IL-5 and IL-13 necessary for accumulation of eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

The Transcription Factor GATA3 Is Critical for the Development of All IL-7Rα-Expressing Innate Lymphoid Cells
Investigators report that GATA3 was indispensable for the development of all interleukin-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) positive innate lymphoid cell subsets and T cells but was not required for the development of classical natural killer cells. Conditionally Gata3-deficient mice had no lymph nodes and were susceptible to Citrobactor rodentium infection. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

The Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Is a Negative Regulator of CD40 and BAFF-R Signaling and Controls B Cell Autoimmunity
Scientists showed that PTP1B negatively regulates CD40, B cell activating factor receptor (BAFF-R), and TLR4 signaling in B cells. Specifically, PTP1B counteracts p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by directly dephosphorylating Tyr182 of this kinase. [J Exp Med] Abstract | Press Release

A2B Adenosine Receptor Induces Protective Antihelminth Type 2 Immune Responses
The type 2 immune response evoked by intestinal nematode parasites contributes to worm expulsion and tolerance to associated tissue damage. Researchers investigated whether this host response is affected by blocking signaling by the putative endogenous danger signal adenosine, which can be released during inflammation and host cell damage. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Self-Recognition of the Endothelium Enables Regulatory T-Cell Trafficking and Defines the Kinetics of Immune Regulation
Investigators showed that recognition of self-antigens expressed by endothelial cells in target tissue is instrumental for efficient regulatory T cell recruitment in vivo. This event relies upon IFN-γ-mediated induction of MHC-class-II molecule expression by the endothelium and requires optimal PI3K p110δ activation by the T-cell receptor. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Interindividual Variation in Human T Regulatory Cells
Scientists analyzed population-level FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell variability by performing genome-wide expression profiling of CD4+ Treg and conventional CD4+ T cells from 168 donors, healthy or with established type-1 diabetes (T1D) or T2D, in relation to genetic and immunologic screening. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

MeCP2 Reinforces STAT3 Signaling and the Generation of Effector CD4+ T Cells by Promoting MicroRNA-124-Mediated Suppression of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 5
Researchers examined a potential role for methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in regulating the responses of CD4+ T cells to stimulation with antigen. MeCP2 was indispensable for the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into T helper type 1 (TH1) and TH17 cells and for TH1- or TH17-mediated pathologies in vitro and in vivo. [Sci Signal] Abstract

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The Production and Regulation of IgE by the Immune System
The authors summarize recent advances in our understanding of the production and the regulation of IgE in vivo, as revealed by studies in mice, and they discuss how these findings compare to what is known about human IgE biology. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Regulatory T-Cell Vaccination Independent of Auto-Antigen
This review article examines the potential of treating autoimmune diseases without having previous knowledge of the auto-anitgen using an innocuous antigen to stimulate regulatory T cells via the production of transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-10. [Exp Mol Med] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.
MD Anderson, MedImmune Join Forces to Advance Cancer Immunotherapy
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and MedImmune will collaborate through MD Anderson’s Moon Shots Program to develop therapies that unleash patients’ immune systems to attack their cancers. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center] Press Release

Sanofi and UCB Partner for Breakthrough Innovation in Immune-Mediated Diseases
Sanofi and UCB announced they have entered into a scientific and strategic collaboration for the discovery and development of innovative anti-inflammatory small molecules, which have the potential to treat a wide range of immune-mediated diseases in areas such as gastroenterology and arthritis. [Sanofi] Press Release

TNI BioTech, Inc. Granted Additional Patent for Methods for Inducing Sustained Immune Response of T-Cells
TNI BioTech, Inc. announced the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has granted a key patent for IRT-101 for inducing sustained immune response of T-Cells. The present invention relates to methods of stimulating and promoting a sustained natural immune system response, resulting in increased resistance and inhibition of infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, and other immunodeficiency-related ailments. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

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Alliance for Regenerative Medicine Announces Introduction of Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act of 2014 in the Senate
The Alliance for Regenerative Medicine announced the introduction of the Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act of 2014 in the U.S. Senate and expressed appreciation for the efforts of its lead sponsors, Senators Barbara Boxer and Mark Kirk. [Alliance for Regenerative Medicine] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Vaccine Research Summit 2014
April 22-23, 2014
London, United Kingdom

NEW Phacilitate Partnering for Biologic Emerging Markets 2014
May 28-29, 2014
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

NEW Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Molecular Mechanisms of Leukemia Immune Evasion (San Raffaele Scientific Institute)

PhD Student – Immunometabolic Networks Regulating the Innate Immune Response (Radboud University Medical Center)

Staff Scientists – Immunology (GlaxoSmithKline)

Research Group Leader – Basic Mechanisms and Regulation of Inflammation (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)

Professor – Cancer Research (Yale University School of Medicine)

PhD Studentship – B Cell and Macrophage Function in Cancer (Karolinska Institute)

Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Assistant Professor – Development of Novel Biologicals for Immune-Based Disorders (Leiden Academic Centre For Drug Research)

Immunology Research Associate Position (Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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