Volume 6.07 | Feb 28

Immune Regulation News 6.07 February 28, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Nanoparticles Target Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Where Needed
Researchers developed a system for precisely delivering anti-inflammatory drugs to immune cells gone out of control, while sparing their well-behaved counterparts. The system uses nanoparticles made of tiny bits of protein designed to bind to unique receptors found only on neutrophils, a type of immune cell engaged in detrimental acute and chronic inflammatory responses. [Press release from the University of Illinois at Chicago discussing online prepublication in Nature Nanotechnology] Press Release | Abstract
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Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cells Stimulate Hematopoietic Progenitors by Promoting Cytokine Release from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Scientists showed that interferon γ secreted by effector cytotoxic CD8+ T cells stimulates hematopoiesis at the level of early multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells and induces myeloid differentiation. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Real-Time Immune Cell Interactions in Target Tissue during Autoimmune-Induced Damage and Graft Tolerance
Investigators conducted intravital, longitudinal imaging analyses of cellular behavior in nonlymphoid target tissues to illustrate some key aspects of T cell biology. They used mouse models of T cell-mediated damage and protection of pancreatic islet grafts. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Itk-Mediated Integration of T Cell Receptor and Cytokine Signaling Regulates the Balance between Th17 and Regulatory T Cells
The authors showed that the Tec family kinase Itk (IL2-inducible T cell kinase), a component of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways, influences this balance by regulating cross talk between TCR and cytokine signaling. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Central Memory CD8+ T Lymphocytes Mediate Lung Allograft Acceptance
Using a murine model, scientists found that costimulatory blockade-mediated lung allograft acceptance depended on the rapid infiltration of the graft by central memory CD8+ T cells (CD44hiCD62LhiCCR7+). Chemokine receptor signaling and alloantigen recognition were required for trafficking of these memory T cells to lung allografts. [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

Magnetic Field-Induced T Cell Receptor Clustering by Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Activation and Stimulates Antitumor Activity
To enhance T cell activation, a magnetic field was used to drive aggregation of paramagnetic nano-aAPC, resulting in a doubling of T cell receptor cluster size and increased T cell expansion in vitro and after adoptive transfer in vivo. [ACS Nano] Abstract | Press Release

Local Immunostimulation Leading to Rejection of Accepted Male Skin Grafts by Female Mice as a Model for Cancer Immunotherapy
Female mice of inbred strain CBA do not reject syngeneic male skin grafts even though they mount a T-cell response against the male-specific HY antigen. Investigators showed that local immunostimulation performed by injecting cytokines and Toll-like receptor ligands in close vicinity to the graft causes rejection. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Foxp3+ T Cells Inhibit Antitumor Immune Memory Modulated by mTOR Inhibition
Inhibition of mTOR signaling enhances antitumor memory lymphocytes. However, pharmacologic mTOR inhibition also enhances regulatory T cell (Treg) activity. To counter this effect, Treg-control was added to mTOR inhibition in preclinical models. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Tumor-Induced STAT3 Signaling in Myeloid Cells Impairs Dendritic Cell Generation by Decreasing PKCβII Abundance
Researchers found in humans and mice that breast cancer cells substantially decreased the abundance of protein kinase C βII (PKCβII) in myeloid progenitor cells through a mechanism involving the enhanced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling by soluble, tumor-derived factors. [Sci Signal] Abstract

MicroRNA-21 Regulates T-Cell Apoptosis by Directly Targeting the Tumor Suppressor Gene Tipe2
The authors report here that microRNA (miR)-21 is a direct target of nuclear factor-κB and could regulate Tipe2 expression in a Tipe2 coding region-dependent manner. In activated T cells and macrophages, Tipe2 expression was markedly downregulated, whereas miR-21 expression was upregulated. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

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Regulation of Immune Responses by Extracellular Vesicles
Given the tremendous therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles, this review focuses on their role in modulating immune responses, as well as their potential therapeutic applications. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Liver Fibrosis and Repair: Immune Regulation of Wound Healing in a Solid Organ
The authors focus on recent advances in liver fibrosis research as a paradigm for wound healing in solid organs and the role of the immune system in regulating and balancing this response. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.

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THYMISTEM Researches Stem Cell Therapies for Damaged Immune Systems
Studies show that transplanting thymus cells into patients can be an effective way to repair and restore the immune system; however the lack of a source for these specialized cells represents a major barrier. In the previous studies, scientists used cells from newborn babies that had been removed as a normal part of heart surgery. Cells from adult donors are shown not to have the same effect. The THYMISTEM team seeks to overcome this by finding new methods of producing thymus stem cells in the lab as an alternative source of cells for therapy. [European Commission] Press Release

CEL-SCI Reports 146 Patients Enrolled in Its Phase III Immunotherapy Head and Neck Cancer Trial
CEL-SCI Corporation reported accelerating progress in patient enrollment in the Phase III Head and Neck Cancer clinical trial of its investigational cancer immunotherapy treatment Multikine (Leukocyte Interleukin, Injection). Approximately 146 patients have been enrolled in the Phase III study to date. [CEL-SCI Corporation]
Press Release

ImmunoCellular Therapeutics Receives Orphan Drug Status for ICT-107 in Glioblastoma in the European Union
ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd. announced that the European Medicines Agency has granted orphan drug designation for ICT-107 for the treatment of patients with glioblastoma. ICT-107 is an intradermally administered autologous vaccine consisting of the patient’s dendritic cells pulsed with six synthetic tumor-associated antigens: AIM-2, MAGE-1, TRP-2, gp100, HER-2, IL-13Rα2. [ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd.] Press Release

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NEW European Workshop on Skin Immune Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (SIMID)
April 24-26, 2014
Verona, Italy

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Research Group Leader – Basic Mechanisms and Regulation of Inflammation (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)

NEW Professor – Cancer Research (Yale University School of Medicine)

NEW Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

PhD Studentship – B Cell and Macrophage Function in Cancer (Karolinska Institutet)

Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

PhD Student Position – Molecular Immunology (Institute for Research in Biomedicine)

Principal Investigator – Inflammation Research (Northwestern University)

Assistant Professor – Development of Novel Biologicals for Immune-Based Disorders (Leiden Academic Centre For Drug Research)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Signaling in the Immune System (Baylor Institute for Immunology Research)

Immunology Research Associate Position (Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

PhD Position – Biology/Immunology (Saarland University)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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