Volume 6.05 | Feb14

Immune Regulation News 6.05 February 14, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Researchers Find Source of New Lineage of Immune Cells
The elusive progenitor cells that give rise to innate lymphoid cells – a recently discovered group of infection-fighting white blood cells – have been identified in fetal liver and adult bone marrow of mice, researchers report. [Press release from The University of Chicago Medical Center discussing online prepublication in Nature]
Press Release
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
L-Myc Expression by Dendritic Cells Is Required for Optimal T-Cell Priming
To examine the in vivo function of Mycl1 in mice, scientists generated an inactivating Mycl1gfp allele that also reports Mycl1 expression. They find that Mycl1 is selectively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) of the immune system and controlled by IRF8, and that during DC development, Mycl1 expression is initiated in the common DC progenitor concurrent with reduction in c-Myc expression. [Nature] Abstract

Stage-Specific Control of Early B Cell Development by the Transcription Factor Ikaros
The transcription factor Ikaros is an essential regulator of lymphopoiesis. Here researchers studied its B cell-specific function by conditional inactivation of the gene encoding Ikaros (Ikzf1) in pro-B cells. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Transcriptome-Based Network Analysis Reveals a Spectrum Model of Human Macrophage Activation
The authors stimulated human macrophages with diverse activation signals, acquiring a data set of 299 macrophage transcriptomes. Analysis of this data set revealed a spectrum of macrophage activation states extending the current M1 versus M2-polarization model. [Immunity]
Full Article
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Autoimmune Disorders Associated with Gain of Function of the Intracellular Sensor MDA5
Investigators provide direct evidence that dysregulation of MDA5 caused autoimmune disorders. They established a mutant mouse line bearing MDA5 mutation by ENU mutagenesis, which spontaneously developed lupus-like autoimmune symptoms without viral infection. [Immunity] Abstract

Crosstalk between the cGAS DNA Sensor and Beclin-1 Autophagy Protein Shapes Innate Antimicrobial Immune Responses
Scientists report that the direct interaction between cyclic GMP-AMP synthetase (cGAS) and the Beclin-1 autophagy protein not only suppresses cyclic GMP-AMP synthesis to halt interferon production upon double-stranded DNA stimulation or herpes simplex virus-1 infection, but also enhances autophagy-mediated degradation of cytosolic pathogen DNA to prevent excessive cGAS activation and persistent immune stimulation. [Cell Host Microbe] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

IRF4 and BATF Are Critical for CD8+ T-Cell Function following Infection with LCMV
The authors showed that the interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and its cooperating binding partner B-cell-activating transcription factor (BATF) are necessary for sustained CD8+ T-cell effector function. [Cell Death Differ] Full Article

An Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand Acts on Dendritic Cells and T Cells to Suppress the Th17 Response in Allergic Rhinitis Patients
Researchers analyzed the effect of aryl hydrocarbon receptor on Th17 differentiation by investigating the action of 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester on dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells from patients with allergic rhinitis. [Lab Invest] Abstract

Tissue-Expressed B7-H1 Critically Controls Intestinal Inflammation
B7-H1 (PD-L1) on immune cells plays an important role in T cell coinhibition by binding its receptor PD-1. Here, researchers showed that both human and mouse intestinal epithelium express B7-H1 and that B7-H1-deficient mice are highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate- or trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced gut injury. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

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Signals and Pathways Controlling Regulatory T Cells
The authors discuss the known signals and pathways which govern regulatory T cell (Treg) development, both in the thymus and in peripheral sites, as well as lineage maintenance and homeostasis. In particular, they highlight the roles of T-cell receptor signaling, CD28 costimulation, and signals through phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and related metabolic pathways in multiple aspects of Treg biology. [Immunol Rev] Abstract

Dendritic Cells and Cancer Immunotherapy
An understanding of the functional specializations of dendritic cell (DC) subsets, strategies for the delivery of tumor Ag to DC and for enhancing immune responses, point to promising new avenues for the design of more effective DC-based cancer vaccines. [Curr Opin Immunol] Abstract

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iTeos Therapeutics SA Files Patent for Immunomodulators in Cancer Immunotherapy
iTeos Therapeutics SA announced the filing of the company’s first patent applications protecting proprietary inhibitors of the intracellular enzyme TDO2, which is expressed at high levels in specific cancers. [iTeos Therapeutics SA] Press Release

Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited and Pierre Fabre Announce a Licensing Agreement for a New Cancer Therapeutic in Immuno-Oncology: AUNP12, an Immune Checkpoint Modulator Targeting the PD-1 Pathway
Pierre Fabre and Aurigene announced that the two companies have entered into a collaborative license, development and commercialization agreement granting Pierre Fabre global Worldwide rights (excluding India) to a new immune checkpoint modulator, AUNP-12. [Aurigene Discovery Technologies] Press Release

Galectin Therapeutics CEO Serves on Cancer Immunotherapy Panel at BIO CEO & Investor Conference
Galectin Therapeutics Inc. announced that Peter G. Traber, M.D., Chief Executive Officer, President and Chief Medical Officer of Galectin Therapeutics, served on a panel titled “Keeping an I on Oncology: The ASCO Immunotherapy Preview” at the 16th Annual BIO CEO & Investor Conference. The panel reviewed the general field of immunotherapy, the recent successes and potential future directions. [Galectin Therapeutics Inc.]
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June 7-11, 2014
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NEW Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

NEW Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Biochemistry and Immunology (Trinity College Dublin)

PhD Student Position – Molecular Immunology (Institute for Research in Biomedicine)

Principal Investigator – Inflammation Research (Northwestern University)

Assistant Professor – Development of Novel Biologicals for Immune-Based Disorders (Leiden Academic Centre For Drug Research)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Signaling in the Immune System (Baylor Institute for Immunology Research)

Immunology Research Associate Position (Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

PhD Position – Biology/Immunology (Saarland University)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

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