Volume 6.04 | Feb 7

Immune Regulation News 6.04 February 7, 2014
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Red Alert: Body Kills ‘Spontaneous’ Blood Cancers on a Daily Basis
Immune cells undergo ‘spontaneous’ changes on a daily basis that could lead to cancers if not for the diligent surveillance of our immune system, scientists have found. The research team found that the immune system was responsible for eliminating potentially cancerous immune B cells in their early stages, before they developed into B-cell lymphomas (also known as non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas). [Press release from The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine]
Press Release | Abstract
A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Molecular Editing of Cellular Responses by the High-Affinity Receptor for IgE
Researchers investigated how the high-affinity receptor for IgE modulates the response of mast cells to a high- or low-affinity stimulus. [Science] Abstract

Intrinsic CD4+ T Cell Sensitivity and Response to a Pathogen Are Set and Sustained by Avidity for Thymic and Peripheral Complexes of Self Peptide and MHC
Specific and nonspecific stimulation of LLO56 and LLO118 T cells, which transgenically express a T cell antigen receptor (TCR) specific for the same Listeria monocytogenes epitope, elicited distinct interleukin 2 and phosphorylated kinase Erk responses, the strength of which was set in the thymus and maintained in the periphery in proportion to the avidity of the binding of the TCR to the self peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complex. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

2B4 (CD244) Induced by Selective CD28 Blockade Functionally Regulates Allograft-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses
Investigators identified a critical role for the co-inhibitory SLAM family member 2B4 in attenuating primary antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the presence of immune modulation with selective CD28 blockade. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Mouse Model of Intrauterine Inflammation: Sex-Specific Differences in Long-Term Neurologic and Immune Sequelae
Researchers aimed to elucidate long-term (into adolescence and adulthood) neurological outcomes by assessing neurobehavioral development, MRI, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry of cells of immune origin and to determine whether there are any sex-specific differences in brain development associated with intrauterine inflammation. They observed chronic brain inflammation in the offspring, with persistence of microglial activation and increased numbers of macrophages in the brain, ultimately resulting in neuronal loss. [Brain Behav Immun] Abstract | Press Release

Lymphatic Specific Disruption in the Fine Structure of Heparan Sulfate Inhibits Dendritic Cell Traffic and Functional T Cell Responses in the Lymph Node
Investigators demonstrated that genetically altering the fine structure (N-sulfation) of heparan sulfate specifically in mouse lymphatic endothelium significantly reduces dendritic cell trafficking to regional lymph nodes (LNs) in vivo. Moreover, this alteration had the unique functional consequence of reducing CD8+ T cell proliferative responses in draining LNs in an ovalbumin immunization model. [J Immunol] Abstract

IL-21 Promotes CD4 T Cell Responses by Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Dependent Upregulation of CD86 on B Cells
Researchers identified a novel role for IL-21 as an inducer of the costimulatory ligand CD86 on B lymphocytes. CD86 provides critical signals through T cell-expressed CD28 that promote T cell activation in response to Ag engagement. [J Immunol] Abstract

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells License Regulatory T Cells, Upon iNKT-Cell Stimulation, to Prevent Autoimmune Diabetes
Findings revealed that upon repetitive invariant (i)NKT cell stimulation, plasmacytoid dendritic cells are critical for the recruitment of Treg cells in the pancreatic islets and the prevention of type 1 diabetes development. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

CD40 Signaling Drives B Lymphocytes Into an Intermediate Memory-Like State, Poised between Naïve and Plasma Cells
Data revealed that CD40 signaling mediated BLIMP1 down regulation occurs by non-Pax5/non-Bcl6 dependent mechanisms, indicating novel mechanisms at work that add to the complexity of understanding of B cell master regulatory molecules like BLIMP1 and Pax5. [J Cell Physiol] Abstract

Generation and Characterization of Regulatory Dendritic Cells Derived from Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Scientists attempted to generate and characterize regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs) from murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The generated iPS-DCregs demonstrated high CD11b/c and low CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC-II expressions with a high antigen uptake ability and poor T-cell stimulatory function. [Sci Rep]
Full Article

E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b Suppresses Proallergic T Cell Development and Allergic Airway Inflammation
The authors report that the loss of Cbl-b facilitates T helper 2 (Th2) and Th9 cell differentiation in vitro. In a mouse model of asthma, the absence of Cbl-b results in severe airway inflammation and stronger Th2 and Th9 responses. [Cell Rep] Abstract | Full Article | Graphical Abstract

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REVIEWS
The Unconventional Expression of IL-15 and Its Role in NK Cell Homeostasis
The author reviews the regulation of interleukin (IL)-15 in vivo, its role in driving natural killer (NK) cell differentiation and discuss the function of NK cell diversification with regard to innate immunity. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

The Balance of Intestinal Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells and Th17 Cells and Its Biological Significance
Researchers discuss the characteristics of gut regulatory T cells and Th17 cells and their role in gut diseases. [Expert Rev Clin Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Stem Cell Research May Repair Immunity
A major research initiative could pave the way for new stem cell therapies for people with damaged immune systems. The £5 million project may translate into new treatments that benefit older people and those who have received a bone marrow transplant. It aims to develop stem cell therapies that can boost the immune system by repairing the thymus. [The University of Edinburgh] Press Release

Grants Support Immunotherapy-Based Treatment for Childhood Cancer
Two Baylor College of Medicine researchers have received grants from the nonprofit organization Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation to advance their immunotherapy-based treatment approaches for childhood cancer from the bench to bedside. [Baylor College of Medicine] Press Release

NeoStem Expands Treg International Patent Portfolio with Granting of Patent in Japan
NeoStem, Inc. announced the expansion of intellectual property protection surrounding the Company’s T-regulatory cell (Treg) program with the grant of Japanese Patent Number 5409827 titled “Methods for the Isolation and Expansion of Cord Blood Derived T Regulatory Cells.” This grant further expands the scope and reach of NeoStem’s Treg patent estate internationally. [NeoStem, Inc.] Press Release

Coronado Biosciences Granted a Second Key Patent for CNDO-109, an Activator of Natural Killer Cells
Coronado Biosciences, Inc. announced the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has granted a second key patent for CNDO-109 directed to the activated Natural Killer (NK) cell compositions employed in its NK cell therapy program, and has further issued a Notice of Allowance in an additional pending application directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising these activated NK cells. [Coronado Biosciences, Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Immunogenicity
July 14-15, 2014
London, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Biochemistry and Immunology (Trinity College Dublin)

NEW PhD Student Position – Molecular Immunology (Institute for Research in Biomedicine)

Principal Investigator – Inflammation Research (Northwestern University)

Assistant Professor – Development of Novel Biologicals for Immune-based Disorders (Leiden Academic Centre For Drug Research)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Signaling in the Immune System (Baylor Institute for Immunology Research)

Immunology Research Associate Position (Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

PhD Position – Biology/Immunology (Saarland University)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)


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