Volume 6.02 | Jan 24

Immune Regulation News 6.02 January 24, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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Tuning of Antigen Sensitivity by T Cell Receptor-Dependent Negative Feedback Controls T Cell Effector Function in Inflamed Tissues
The authors combined dynamic intravital microscopy with ex vivo assessments of T cell cytokine responses to generate a detailed spatiotemporal picture of CD4+ T cell effector regulation in the skin. [Immunity]
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
TRIM38 Inhibits TNFα- and IL-1β-Triggered NF-κB Activation by Mediating Lysosome-Dependent Degradation of TAB2/3
Investigators identified tripartite-motif protein 38 (TRIM38) as a critical negative regulator of TNFα- and IL-1β-triggered signaling. Overexpression of TRIM38 inhibited activation of NF-κB and induction of downstream cytokines following TNFα and IL-1β stimulation, whereas knockdown or knockout of TRIM38 had the opposite effects. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Alarmin IL-33 Acts as an Immunoadjuvant to Enhance Antigen-Specific Tumor Immunity
Two biologically active isoforms of IL-33 exist that are full-length or mature, but the ability of either isoform to function as a vaccine adjuvant that influences CD4 Th1 or CD8 T cell immune responses is not defined. Researchers showed that both IL-33 isoforms are capable of enhancing potent antigen-specific effector and memory T cell immunity in vivo in a DNA vaccine setting. [Cancer Res] Abstract | Press Release

IL-17-Producing NKT Cells Depend Exclusively on IL-7 for Homeostasis and Survival
Scientists showed that natural killer T (NKT)17 cells deviate from other NKT cells in their survival requirements. In contrast to conventional NKT cells that are maintained by IL-15, RORγt+ NKT cells are IL-15 independent and instead rely completely on IL-7. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Conventional CD4+ T Cells Regulate IL-22-Producing Intestinal Innate Lymphoid Cells
The authors found that CD4+ T cells regulate the number and function of barrier-protective innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), as well as production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), Reg3γ and Reg3β. RAG1−/− mice lacking T and B cells had elevated ILC numbers, interleukin-22 (IL-22) production, and AMP expression, which were corrected by replacement of CD4+ T cells. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Excess IL-1 Signaling Enhances the Development of Th17 Cells by Downregulating TGF-β-Induced Foxp3 Expression
The authors found that IL-21 production was increased in the lymph nodes of IL-1R antagonist-deficient (Il1rn−/−) mice, naive Il6−/− CD4+ T cells differentiated into Th17 cells when cultured with TGF-β and IL-21, and the differentiation was greatly enhanced when IL-1 was added to the culture. [J Immunol] Abstract

IL-21 Contributes to Fatal Inflammatory Disease in the Absence of Foxp3+ T Regulatory Cells
To distinguish the effect of IL-21 on the immune system from that of its effect on T regulatory cells (Tregs), investigators analyzed the role of IL-21/IL-21R signaling in mice made genetically deficient in IL-2, which exhibit a deficit in IL-2-dependent Foxp3 Tregs and suffer from a fatal multiorgan inflammatory disease. [J Immunol] Abstract

A Requirement of Dendritic Cell-Derived Interleukin-27 for the Tumor Infiltration of Regulatory T Cells
Scientists demonstrated that in the absence of dendritic cell-derived interkeukin (IL)-27, regulatory T cells (Foxp3+CD4+) were decreased significantly in transplanted B16 melanoma, transplanted EL-4 lymphoma, and MCA-induced fibrosarcoma by using IL-27p28 conditional KO mice. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

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The Function of Fcγ Receptors in Dendritic Cells and Macrophages
The authors discuss how the uptake, processing and presentation of antigens by dendritic cells and macrophages is influenced by Fc receptors for IgG (FcγR) recognition of immunoglobulins and immune complexes in the steady state and during inflammation. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Mitigating the Toxic Effects of Anticancer Immunotherapy
This review describes the toxicity profiles for various anticancer therapies based on the use of agents that block immune checkpoints, immunostimulatory agents, and adoptive T-cell therapy (that is, infusion of modified autologous T cells). [Nat Rev Clin Oncol] Abstract

The New Insights of DPP-4 Inhibitors: Their Potential Immune Modulatory Function in Autoimmune Diabetes
Recent studies suggest that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors improve β-cell function and attenuate autoimmunity in type 1 diabetic mouse models. However, there are few clinical studies on the treatment of autoimmune diabetes with DPP-4 inhibitors. Further studies are warranted to confirm the therapeutic effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on autoimmune diabetes in humans. [Diabetes Metab Res Rev] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.
ITN Wins NIH Award for Collaborative Network for Tolerance Research
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease announced that the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN) has been awarded a UM1 grant for a Collaborative Network for Clinical Research on Immune Tolerance. The current grant will allow the ITN to continue to develop, fund and implement mechanistically-focused clinical trials for novel therapies in transplantation, allergy and autoimmune diseases. [Immune Tolerance Network]
Press Release

MD Anderson Announces Collaboration with Johnson & Johnson Innovation on Cancer Immunotherapy
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center will collaborate with Johnson & Johnson Innovation, LLC, and its affiliate Janssen Biotech, Inc., to develop immunology-based cancer treatments through the MD Anderson Moon Shots Program immunotherapy platform. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center] Press Release

Biocon Collaborates with Advaxis for ‘ADXS-HPV’ A Novel Cancer Immunotherapy
Biocon Ltd. and Advaxis, Inc. announced that they have entered into an exclusive licensing agreement for co-development and commercialization of ADXS-HPV, a novel cancer immunotherapy for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer in women, for India and key emerging markets. [Biocon Ltd.] Press Release

The HUB Foundation for Organoid Technology and STEMCELL Technologies Sign Agreement on the Manufacturing of Cell Culture Media for Organoids
The HUB Foundation for Organoid Technology announced that it has signed a licensing agreement with STEMCELL Technologies Inc. for the manufacturing and worldwide distribution of cell culture media for growing Organoids. Organoids are mini-organs grown in tissue culture from small pieces of tissue derived from patients with cancer and other diseases, and represent an exciting new tool for scientific research and drug discovery and validation. [STEMCELL Technologies Inc.] Press Release

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NEW 9th International Congress on Autoimmunity
March 26-28, 2014
Nice, France

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Fellowship – Blockade of Immune Checkpoints to Increase the Efficacy of HER2 Vaccine (University of Turin)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Cell Signaling in the Immune System (Baylor Institute for Immunology Research)

NEW Immunology Research Associate Position (Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Postdoctoral Position – Molecular/Cellular Immunology (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/National Institutes of Health)

PhD Position – Biology/Immunology (Saarland University)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Cardiovascular Disease (Medical University of Innsbruck)

Chief Medical Officer – Novel Therapeutics in Oncology and Autoimmune Disease (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Clinical MD – Clinical Development Program for Oncology and Autoimmune Diseases (Immunomedics, Inc.)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

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