Volume 6.01 | Jan 17

Immune Regulation News 6.01 January 17, 2014
Immune Regulation News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Altering Community of Gut Bacteria Promotes Health and Increases Lifespan
Scientists have promoted health and increased lifespan in Drosophila by altering the symbiotic, or commensal, relationship between bacteria and the absorptive cells lining the intestine. They found that the bacterial load in fly intestines increases dramatically with age, resulting in an inflammatory condition. The imbalance is driven by chronic activation of the stress response gene FOXO, which suppresses the activity of a class of molecules that regulate the immune response to bacteria. [Press release from Buck Institute for Research on Aging discussing online prepublication in Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Sphingolipids from a Symbiotic Microbe Regulate Homeostasis of Host Intestinal Natural Killer T Cells
Researchers report that the intestinal microbe Bacteroides fragilis modifies the homeostasis of host invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells by supplementing the host’s endogenous lipid antigen milieu with unique inhibitory sphingolipids. The process occurs early in life and effectively impedes iNKT cell proliferation during neonatal development. [Cell] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment with Interferon-β Bridges Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses
Investigators armed an antibody (Ab) with interferon-β and observed that it is more potent than the first generation of Ab for controlling Ab-resistant tumors. This strategy controls Ab resistance by rebridging suppressed innate and adaptive immunity in the tumor microenvironment. [Cancer Cell] Full Article

Embryonic and Adult-Derived Resident Cardiac Macrophages Are Maintained through Distinct Mechanisms at Steady State and during Inflammation
The authors identified four populations of cardiac macrophages. At steady state, resident macrophages were primarily maintained through local proliferation. However, after macrophage depletion or during cardiac inflammation, Ly6chi monocytes contributed to all four macrophage populations, whereas resident macrophages also expanded numerically through proliferation. [Immunity] Abstract | Press Release

Signaling through the Adaptor Molecule MyD88 in CD4+ T Cells Is Required to Overcome Suppression by Regulatory T Cells
Scientists showed that the T cell-specific ablation of MyD88 in mice impairs not only T helper 17 (Th17) cell responses, but also Th1 cell responses. MyD88 relayed signals of Toll-like receptor-induced IL-1, which became dispensable for Th1 cell responses in the absence of T regulatory cells. [Immunity] Abstract

Therapeutic Inflammatory Monocyte Modulation Using Immune-Modifying Microparticles
Investigators showed that infused negatively charged, immune-modifying microparticles, derived from polystyrene, microdiamonds, or biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, were taken up by inflammatory monocytes, in an opsonin-independent fashion, via the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Integrin CD11b Positively Regulates TLR4-Induced Signaling Pathways in Dendritic Cells but Not in Macrophages
Researchers report that the integrin αM (CD11b) positively regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signaling pathways. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Mouse and Human Notch-1 Regulate Mucosal Immune Responses
The authors showed that epithelial Notch-1 controls the immune function of the epithelium through crosstalk with the nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways that, in turn, elicits T-cell responses. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Idd13 Is Involved in Determining Immunoregulatory DN T-Cell Number in NOD Mice
Scientists investigated the impact of major insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) loci in defining the number of CD4CD8 (double negative, DN) T cells. They demonstrated that although Idd3, Idd5 and Idd9 loci do not regulate DN T-cell number, NOD mice congenic for diabetes resistance alleles at the Idd13 locus show a partial restoration in DN T-cell number. [Genes Immun] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Immune Responses to HCV and Other Hepatitis Viruses
The authors examine innate and adaptive immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Although HCV activates an innate immune response, it employs an elaborate set of mechanisms to evade interferon-based antiviral immunity. [Immunity] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.

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SCIENCE NEWS
Aduro Announces Phase II Clinical Trial Results Demonstrating Statistically Significant Survival Benefit in Pancreatic Cancer Patients Treated with Its Novel Immunotherapies
Aduro BioTech, Inc. announced the presentation of safety and efficacy data from a randomized Phase II clinical trial of its novel immunotherapy product candidates, CRS-207 and GVAX Pancreas, in metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. [Press release from Business Wire discussing research presented at the Annual American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2014 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium, San Francisco]
Press Release

Biothera Research Shows Potential for Treating Imprime PGG Biomarker-Negative Cancer Patients
Biothera has enhanced innate immune responses to its cancer immunotherapy drug candidate Imprime PGG® in subjects regardless of biomarker status, demonstrating the opportunity to treat a larger patient population. [Press release from Biothera, the immune health company discussing research presented at the Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s Antibody-Drug Conjugates/Engineering Targeted Therapeutics conference, Palm Springs] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
$10 Million Gift Will Launch Toni Stephenson Lymphoma Center
A $10 million gift from Emmet and Toni Stephenson and their daughter Tessa Stephenson Brand will fund the creation of the Toni Stephenson Lymphoma Center at City of Hope, the cornerstone of the institution’s new Hematologic Malignancies Institute. The gift will enable City of Hope researchers to deepen their investigation of the biological mechanisms of lymphoma, identify new molecular targets and expedite production of immunotherapies to treat this deadly disease. [City of Hope] Press Release

Agenus Announces Phase II Checkpoint Inhibitor Combination Trial with Prophage Cancer Vaccine for Melanoma
Agenus Inc. announced initiation of a randomized Phase II trial with Prophage for melanoma, and Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Yervoy® (ipilimumab) for the treatment of Stage III and IV metastatic melanoma. The combination has the potential to trigger a more effective immune response against the tumor than Yervoy alone. [Agenus Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Asia Congress
June 10-11, 2014
Singapore, Singapore

NEW Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress 2014
September 29-30, 2014
London, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Postdoctoral Position – Molecular/Cellular Immunology (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/National Institutes of Health)

PhD Position – Biology/Immunology (Saarland University)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Cardiovascular Disease (Medical University of Innsbruck)

Chief Medical Officer – Novel Therapeutics in Oncology and Autoimmune Disease (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Clinical MD – Clinical Development Program for Oncology and Autoimmune Diseases (Immunomedics, Inc.)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)


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