Volume 6.00 | Jan 10

Immune Regulation News 6.00 January 10, 2014
Immune Regulation News
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TOP STORY
Proatherogenic Conditions Promote Autoimmune T Helper 17 Cell Responses In Vivo
Investigators found that atherogenic mice exhibited increased serum interleukin-17, which was associated with increased numbers of T helper 17 cells in secondary lymphoid organs.[Immunity]
Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
An Effective Approach to Prevent Immune Rejection of Human ESC-Derived Allografts
Scientists established knockin human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) that constitutively express CTLA4-Ig and PD-L1 before and after differentiation, denoted CP hESCs. They then demonstrated that allogenic CP hESC-derived teratomas, fibroblasts, and cardiomyocytes are immune protected in humanized mice, while cells derived from parental hESCs are effectively rejected. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Press Release | Graphical Abstract

IL-17 Regulates Systemic Fungal Immunity by Controlling the Functional Competence of NK Cells
Scientists found that mice lacking interleukin (IL)-17 receptor signaling had a cell-intrinsic impairment in the development of functional NK cells, which accounted for the susceptibility of these mice to systemic fungal infection. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

A Single Subset of Dendritic Cells Controls the Cytokine Bias of Natural Killer T Cell Responses to Diverse Glycolipid Antigens
The authors showed that a single type of cell, the CD8α+ DEC-205+ dendritic cell, was mainly responsible for capturing and presenting a variety of different glycolipid antigens, including multiple forms of α-galactosylceramide that stimulate widely divergent cytokine responses. [Immunity]
Full Article
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The Circulating Proteinase Inhibitor α-1 Antitrypsin Regulates Neutrophil Degranulation and Autoimmunity
Researchers investigated the ability of serum α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) to control tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) biosynthesis and signaling in neutrophils and assessed whether AAT deficiency is a TNF-α-related disease. In vitro studies demonstrated that serum AAT coordinates TNF-α intracellular signaling and neutrophil degranulation of tertiary and secondary granules via modulation of ligand-receptor interactions. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

The Long Noncoding RNA Related Immunoregulatory lincRNA Regulates TNFα Expression through Its Interaction with Heterogenous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein L
Scientists used a custom microarray to identify large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) associated with activation of the innate immune response. A panel of 159 lincRNAs was found to be differentially expressed following innate activation of THP1 macrophages. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Lysine Deacetylase Inhibition Prevents Diabetes by Chromatin-Independent Immunoregulation and β-Cell Protection
The authors demonstrated that the clinically well-tolerated lysine deacetylase inhibitors vorinostat and givinostat revert diabetes in the nonobese diabetic mouse model of type 1 diabetes and counteract inflammatory target cell damage by a mechanism of action consistent with transcription factor-rather than global chromatin-hyperacetylation. Vorinostat treatment increased the frequency of functional regulatory T-cell subsets and their transcription factors Gata3 and FoxP3 in parallel to a decrease in inflammatory dendritic cell subsets and their cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

T Helper 2 and Regulatory T-Cell Cytokine Production by Mast Cells: A Key Factor in the Pathogenesis of IgG4-Related Disease
Researchers analyzed paraffin-embedded sections of tissues from nine cases of IgG4-related submandibular gland disease, five cases of submandibular sialolithiasis, and six cases of normal submandibular gland in order to identify potential key players in the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease. [Modern Pathol] Abstract

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reciprocally Regulate the M1/M2 Balance in Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages
Scientists hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may modulate the immunologic environment to accelerate regeneration. This study was designed to assess the functional relationship between the macrophage phenotype and MSCs. [Exp Mol Med] Full Article

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REVIEWS
The Immunoregulatory Role of Type I and Type II NKT Cells in Cancer and Other Diseases
The authors discuss the function of NKT cells in tumor immunity and their interaction with other regulatory cells, especially CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
NeoStem’s Subsidiary, Progenitor Cell Therapy (PCT), to Provide Process Development and Manufacturing Services to Kite Pharma
NeoStem, Inc. and its subsidiary, PCT, announced the execution of a Services Agreement with Kite Pharma, Inc., under which PCT will provide cell therapy process development and manufacturing services for Kite Pharma’s lead engineered Autologous T Cell Therapy (eACT™) clinical development program. [NeoStem, Inc.] Press Release

Bellicum Pharmaceuticals Raises $34.4 Million in a Series B Financing
Bellicum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that it has completed a second and final closing of its Series B financing, securing an additional $14.7 million and bringing the total raised in the round to $34.4 million. The funding will be used to expand clinical development of Bellicum’s lead cellular immunotherapy product candidates. [Bellicum Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Cell Medica Announces Orphan Drug Designation in the European Union for Cytovir ADV
Cell Medica Limited announced that the European Medicines Agency’s Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products has issued a positive opinion on an application for orphan designation of a novel T cell immunotherapy under development by the company. [Cell Medica Limited] Press Release

TxCell Enters Col-Treg into Full Development for the Rare Disease Autoimmune Uveitis
TxCell SA announced it has initiated a full development program with Col-Treg for the treatment of Autoimmune Uveitis. Col-Treg is TxCell’s second therapeutic candidate from its ASTrIA platform after Ovasave®, TxCell’s lead autologous antigen-specific regulatory T-cell-based immunotherapy. [TxCell SA] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Angiogenesis and Leukocytes in Atherosclerosis
January 30-31, 2014
Geneva, Switzerland

NEW Gordon Research Conferences: Chemotactic Cytokines – Positioning Cells in Immunity and Disease
July 27 – August 1, 2014
West Dover, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Molecular/Cellular Immunology (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/National Institutes of Health)

NEW PhD Position – Biology/Immunology (Saarland University)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Cardiovascular Disease (Medical University of Innsbruck)

PhD Positions – Immune Response in Infectious Diseases (University of Duisburg-Essen)

Chief Medical Officer – Novel Therapeutics in Oncology and Autoimmune Disease (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Clinical MD – Clinical Development Program for Oncology and Autoimmune Diseases (Immunomedics, Inc.)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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