Volume 5.49 | Dec 20

Immune Regulation News 5.49 December 20, 2013
Immune Regulation News
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Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin-Mediated Extramedullary Hematopoiesis Promotes Allergic Inflammation
Scientists demonstrated a previously unrecognized role for thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in promoting the population expansion of progenitor cells in the periphery and identified that TSLP-elicited progenitors differentiated into effector cells including macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes and that these cells contributed to type 2 cytokine responses. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Allelic-Dependent Expression of an Activating Fc Receptor on B Cells Enhances Humoral Immune Responses
In both human B cells and B cells from mice transgenic for human FcγRIIc, FcγRIIc expression counterbalances the negative feedback of FcγRIIb and enhances humoral responses to immunization in mice and to BioThrax vaccination in a human anthrax vaccine trial. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Transcription Factor IRF4 Drives Dendritic Cells to Promote Th2 Differentiation
Researchers demonstrated that Th2-promoting stimuli induces dendritic cell (DC) expression of IRF4. Mice with conditional deletion of Irf4 in DCs showed a dramatic defect in Th2-type lung inflammation, yet retain the ability to elicit pulmonary Th1 antiviral responses. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Halofuginone Ameliorates Autoimmune Arthritis by Regulating the Balance between Th17 and Regulatory T Cells and Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis
Treatment with halofuginone (HF) suppressed the development of autoimmune arthritis and reciprocally regulated Th17 cell and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. The effects of HF on Th17 differentiation involved increased signaling of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and reduction of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 expression. [Arthritis Rheum] Abstract

STA-21, a Promising STAT3 Inhibitor that Reciprocally Regulates Th17 and Treg, Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis and Alleviates Autoimmune Inflammation
The authors investigated the impact of STA-21, a promising STAT3 inhibitor, on inflammatory arthritis and the possible mechanisms by which STA-21 has anti-arthritic effects in animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (IL-1 receptor antagonist deficient mice). [Arthritis Rheum] Abstract

Altered Inactivation of Commensal LPS Due to Acyloxyacyl Hydrolase Deficiency in Colonic Dendritic Cells Impairs Mucosal Th17 Immunity
Investigators found that LPS-containing Gram-negative microbiota augmented the differentiation of antigen-specific interleukin 17-secreting CD4+ helper T (Th17) cells, and identified a colonic dendritic cell subset (CD103+CD11b+ALDH) displaying a unique capacity to both express acyloxyacyl hydrolase and polarize Th17 cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Cell-Extrinsic CTLA4-Mediated Regulation of Dendritic Cell Maturation Depends on STAT3
Scientists demonstrated that stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs) with cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), either expressed by inducible regulatory T cells or by cross-linking with CTLA4Fc fusion protein, can significantly inhibit LPS-induced CD80 and CD86 mRNA and protein expression in both mouse and human DCs. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

In Vivo and In Vitro Characterization of the Immune Stimulating Activity of the Neisserial Porin PorB
Scientists demonstrated NFκB translocation following stimulation with Porin B (PorB) only occurs in the presence of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). IL-6 and TNF-α secretion was shown to be MAPK dependent. Surface expression of activation markers on macrophages, including CD40, CD69, and CD86, was increased following PorB stimulation in vitro. [PLoS One] Full Article

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NF-κB Control of T Cell Development
The authors discuss how the temporal regulation of NF-κB controls the stepwise differentiation and antigen-dependent selection of conventional and specialized subsets of T cells in response to T cell receptor and costimulatory, cytokine and growth factor signals. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Immunology of Cancer Stem Cells in Solid Tumors. A Review
This review summarizes findings on the immunological profile of cancer stem cells (CSCs)/tumor initiating cells (TICs) as compared with neoplastic non-stem cells and discusses the possible antigens recognized by the patients’ immune system, the in vitro and the potential in vivo immunogenicity of such antigens and the ability of human CSCs/TICs to down-regulate the immune response by the release of a variety of suppressive factors. [Eur J Cancer] Abstract

The Impact of the TIM Gene Family on Tumor Immunity and Immunosuppression
T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) gene family members have emerged as critical checkpoint proteins that regulate multiple immune response phases and maintain immune homeostasis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that tumor cells exploit TIM gene family members to evade immunosurveillance, whereas TIM gene family members facilitate the prevention of inflammation-related tumor progression. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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Clinical Trial Examines Use of Human Immune System to Fight Aggressive Lung Cancer
Researchers at the Cincinnati Cancer Center and the UC Cancer Institute are conducting a clinical trial examining a method to stimulate the human immune system to destroy or block the growth of lung cancer cells. [University of Cincinnati] Press Release

NW Bio Responds to Shareholder Inquiries following Immune Therapy Sector’s Recent Market Decline
Northwest Biotherapeutics, Inc. responded to inquiries from shareholders and investors about differences between NW Bio’s technology, products and clinical trials and those of a competitor who recently announced the results of a Phase II clinical trial with a dendritic cell vaccine for glioblastoma multiforme. [Northwest Biotherapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Cellular Biomedicine Group Announces Completion of Patient Treatment for Phase I Clinical Trial for Liver Cancer
Cellular Biomedicine Group, Inc. announced that it has treated the final patient of its Phase I clinical trial which evaluates the safety and preliminary efficacy of tumor stem cell specific dendritic cell therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common type of liver cancer. [Cellular Biomedicine Group, Inc.]
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NEW Gut-Brain-Axis: 2nd European Conference of Microbiology and Immunology
June 6-7, 2014
Berlin, Germany

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NEW PhD Positions – Immune Response in Infectious Diseases (University of Duisburg-Essen)

Chief Medical Officer – Novel Therapeutics in Oncology and Autoimmune Disease (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Clinical MD – Clinical Development Program for Oncology and Autoimmune Diseases (Immunomedics, Inc.)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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