Volume 5.47 | Dec 6

Immune Regulation News 5.47 December 6, 2013
Pulmonary Cell News
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A Special Population of Regulatory T Cells Potentiates Muscle Repair
Scientists describe a phenotypically and functionally distinct population of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells that rapidly accumulated in the acutely injured skeletal muscle of mice, just as invading myeloid-lineage cells switched from a proinflammatory to a proregenerative state. [Cell]
| Graphical Abstract | Press Release
A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Hedgehog Signaling Controls T Cell Killing at the Immunological Synapse
The primary cilium, formed in nonhematopoietic cells, is essential for vertebrate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Lymphocytes do not form primary cilia, but researchers found and describe here that Hh signaling played an important role in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) killing. T cell receptor activation, which “prearms” CTLs with cytotoxic granules, also initiated Hh signaling. [Science] Abstract

TIM-4 Glycoprotein-Mediated Degradation of Dying Tumor Cells by Autophagy Leads to Reduced Antigen Presentation and Increased Immune Tolerance
T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin domain-containing molecule-4 (TIM-4) was found to be highly expressed on tumor-associated myeloid cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells and danger-associated molecular patterns released from chemotherapy-damaged tumor cells induced TIM-4 on tumor-associated myeloid cells recruited from bone marrow-derived precursors. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

FoxP3 Acts as a Cotranscription Factor with STAT3 in Tumor-Induced Regulatory T Cells
The authors identified an interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing FoxP3+ T regulatory cell population that contributes to IL-10-dependent type 2 cytokine bias in breast-cancer patients. [Immunity] Abstract

IL-2 Therapy Promotes Suppressive ICOS+ Treg Expansion in Melanoma Patients
Investigators evaluated Treg population subsets that were induced in patients with melanoma following high-dose IL-2 therapy. They identified a Treg population that was positive for CD4, CD25, Foxp3, and the inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS). [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

Natural Killer Cell NKG2D and Granzyme B Are Critical for Allergic Pulmonary Inflammation
Researchers investigated the importance of natural killer (NK) cells in house dust mite-triggered allergic pulmonary inflammation. Specifically, they aimed to determine the role of the major NK-cell activating receptor NKG2D and NK-cell effector functions mediated by granzyme B. [J Allergy Clin Immun]
| Press Release

Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ Limits the Generation of Natural Regulatory T Cells
The authors found that loss of diacylglycerol Kinase ζ resulted in increased numbers of thymic CD25+Foxp3CD4+ natural regulatory T (nTreg) cell precursors and Foxp3+CD4+ nTreg cells in a cell-autonomous manner. [Sci Signal] Abstract | Press Release

Antigen-Specific Expansion of Human Regulatory T Cells as a Major Tolerance Mechanism against Mucosal Fungi
Scientists used a sensitive enrichment technology for antigen-reactive T cells to directly compare the conventional vs. regulatory CD4+ T-cell response directed against two ubiquitous mucosal fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Cross-Talk between Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and the Inflammatory Response: A Role for NF-κB
Results show for the first time that NF-κB RelA is a critical component regulating the expression of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the induction of AhR-dependent gene expression in immune cells illustrating the interaction of AhR and NF-κB signaling. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article
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Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
Autophagy-Mediated Regulation of Macrophages and Its Applications for Cancer
The authors discuss the role of autophagy in the control of macrophage production at different stages and polarization and discuss how modulating autophagy in tumor-associated macrophages may represent a promising strategy for limiting cancer growth and progression. [Autophagy] Abstract

B Cell Regulation of Anti-Tumor Immune Response
Ongoing experiments in the laboratory indicate that B cells migrate to the site of tumor and acquire expression of immunosuppressive ligands and/or cytokines that contribute to the inhibition of anti-tumor immune response. Significant infiltration of human tumors by Treg cells as well as B cells suggests that observations made in murine systems may be applicable to human tumors as well. [Immunol Res] Abstract

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The Oracle of the T Cell
Since December 2013 scientists from around the world can use the “virtual T cell” to test for themselves what happens in the blood cell when receptor proteins are activated on the surface. [University of Freiburg]
Press Release

Three Cancer Research Powerhouses Form Immunotherapy Startup
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is advancing its legacy in immunotherapy by means of a new Seattle biotechnology company that is a unique collaboration among scientists at the Hutch, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York and Seattle Children’s Research Institute. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center] Press Release

TxCell Obtains Manufacturing Accreditation Status for Its French Cell Therapy Manufacturing Facility
TxCell SA, a biotechnology company developing innovative, personalized cell-based immunotherapies using antigen-specific regulatory T-cells for chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, announced that it received a Manufacturing Accreditation delivered by the French National Agency for Drug Safety. [TxCell SA] Press Release

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NEW Chief Medical Officer – Novel Therapeutics in Oncology and Autoimmune Disease (Immunomedics, Inc.)

NEW Clinical MD – Clinical Development Program for Oncology and Autoimmune Diseases (Immunomedics, Inc.)

PhD Student – Principle Mechanisms of the Mucosal Immune System in Allergen Tolerance (Helmholtz Zentrum München)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Immunology (SANOFI R&D)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Immunology Research (The Babraham Institute)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

Research Studentship – Imaging Membrane Lipid in Activating T Cells (King’s College London)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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