Volume 5.45 | Nov 22

Immune Regulation News 5.45 November 22, 2013
Pulmonary Cell News
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The Intestinal Microbiota Modulates the Anticancer Immune Effects of Cyclophosphamide
Studying mouse models, researchers demonstrated that cyclophosphamide alters the composition of microbiota in the small intestine and induces the translocation of selected species of Gram-positive bacteria into secondary lymphoid organs. There, these bacteria stimulate the generation of a specific subset of pathogenic T helper 17 (TH17) cells and memory TH1 immune responses. [Science] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Innate-Like T Cells Straddle Innate and Adaptive Immunity by Altering Antigen-Receptor Responsiveness
In studies that explain how such cells can straddle innate and adaptive immunity, researchers found that signaling via antigen receptors, whose conventional role is to facilitate clonal T cell activation, was critical for the development of innate-like T cells but then was rapidly attenuated, which accommodated the cells’ innate responsiveness. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Self-Antigen-Driven Activation Induces Instability of Regulatory T Cells during an Inflammatory Autoimmune Response
Scientists observed that antigen-driven activation and inflammation in the CNS promoted Foxp3 instability selectively in the autoreactive regulatory T cells that expressed high amounts of Foxp3 before experimental autoimmune encephalitis induction. [ Immunity ] Abstract

IL-2 Coordinates IL-2-Producing and Regulatory T Cell Interplay
Scientists investigated the regulation of the size of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-producing CD4+ T cell (IL-2p) pool using different IL-2 reporter mice. They found that in the absence of either IL-2 or regulatory CD4+ T cells, the number of IL-2p cells increases. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Integrin CD11b Negatively Regulates BCR Signaling to Maintain Autoreactive B Cell Tolerance
The authors showed that autoreactive B cells lacking integrin-α-M (CD11b) exhibit a hyperproliferative response to B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking and enhanced survival. In vivo engagement of BCR in CD11b-deficient mice leads to increased autoAb production and kidney Ig deposition. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Etoposide Selectively Ablates Activated T Cells to Control the Immunoregulatory Disorder Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
Investigators found that the therapeutic mechanism of etoposide in a model system involved potent deletion of activated T cells and efficient suppression of inflammatory cytokine production. This effect was remarkably selective; etoposide did not exert a direct anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages or dendritic cells, and it did not cause deletion of quiescent naive or memory T cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

α2β1 Integrin Regulates Th17 Cell Activity and Its Neutralization Decreases the Severity of Collagen-Induced Arthritis
The authors examined the role of α2β1 integrin in Th17-mediated destructive arthritis in the murine model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). They found that α2β1 integrin is expressed on synovial Th17 cells from CIA mice and its neutralization with a specific mAb significantly reduced inflammation and cartilage degradation, and protected the mice from bone erosion. [J Immunol] Abstract

FoxP3 Provides Competitive Fitness to CD4+CD25+ T Cells in Leprosy Patients via Transcriptional Regulation
Researchers describe the mechanism of action of FoxP3 in CD4+CD25+ T cells derived from leprosy patients. Increased molecular interactions of FoxP3 with Histone deacetylases in the nucleus of CD4+CD25+ T cells derived from lepromatous leprosy patients were found to be responsible for FoxP3-driven immune suppression activities during the progression of leprosy. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

IgA+ Plasma Cells in Murine Intestinal Lamina Propria as a Positive Regulator of Treg Differentiation
Scientists investigated whether IgA+ LP-PCs from murine small intestines had effects on T cell differentiation. Surprisingly, when IgA+ LP-PCs were cocultured with CD4+ T cells, Foxp3 expression was increased significantly in CD4+CD25 T cells. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract
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Beyond Stem Cells: Self-Renewal of Differentiated Macrophages
Recently, major macrophage populations were found to be derived from embryonic progenitors and to renew independently of hematopoietic stem cells. This process may not require progenitors, as mature macrophages can proliferate in response to specific stimuli indefinitely and without transformation or loss of functional differentiation. These findings suggest that macrophages are mature differentiated cells that may have a self-renewal potential similar to that of stem cells. [Science] Abstract

A Rheostat for Immune Responses: The Unique Properties of PD-1 and Their Advantages for Clinical Application
The molecular mechanisms of the functions of PD-1, in conjunction with the mild, chronic and strain-specific autoimmune phenotypes of PD-1-deficient mice, in contrast to the devastating fatal autoimmune disease of mice deficient in the immunomodulatory receptor CTLA-4, suggest that immunoregulation by PD-1 is rather antigen specific and is mainly cell intrinsic. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase- An Integral Protein of B Cell Development that Also Has an Essential Role in the Innate Immune System
This review focuses on the function of Btk in monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets and the receptors and signaling cascades in such cells with which Btk is associated. [J Leukocyte Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.
Galena Biopharma Announces Initial Results from the Folate Binding Protein Vaccine Phase I Trial
Galena Biopharma announced a poster presentation discussing results of the Phase I portion of the trial for the Folate Binding Protein (FBP) vaccine. FBP is a folate receptor alpha-derived, peptide-based cancer immunotherapy administered to HLA A2 positive patients in combination with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor as an adjuvant treatment to prevent recurrences in high-risk, endometrial and ovarian cancer patients rendered disease-free after completing standard of care therapy. [Press release from Galena Biopharma, Inc. discussing research presented at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) Conference 2013, National Harbor] Press Release

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Immune Researcher Receives Top Gong
Associate Professor Gabrielle Belz has been awarded an Elizabeth Blackburn Fellowship by the National Health and Medical Research Council as the highest ranked woman applicant in the biomedical sciences. [The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research] Press Release

ARC Future Fellows Awarded $2.2 Million for Immune and Inflammation Studies
Scientists from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute have been awarded more than $2.2 million from the Australian Research Council (ARC) to improve treatments for immune disorders and inflammatory diseases. [The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research]
Press Release

Loyola Recruiting Melanoma Patients for Clinical Trial of Innovative Treatment Vaccine
Loyola University Medical Center is enrolling melanoma patients in the first clinical trial in the Midwest of an experimental vaccine that trains a patient’s immune system to fight the deadly cancer. [Loyola University Medical Center] Press Release
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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW IMMUTOL 2014 : 3rd International Conference on Immune Tolerance
September 28-30, 2014
Amsterdam, Netherlands

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW PhD Student – Principle Mechanisms of the Mucosal Immune System in Allergen Tolerance (Helmholtz Zentrum München)

NEW Postdoctoral Research Position – Immunology (SANOFI R&D)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Immunology Research (The Babraham Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immune Regulation by Extracellular Matrix Proteins (Johns Hopkins University)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Women’s Infectious Disease Research (Washington University School of Medicine)

Research Studentship – Imaging Membrane Lipid in Activating T Cells (King’s College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Lymphocyte Motility (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immunotherapy (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Ripk1 in Innate Immune Responses and Necroptosis (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

PhD/Postdoctoral Positions – Quantitative T-Cell Immunology (University of Leeds)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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