Volume 5.44 | Nov 15

Immune Regulation News 5.44 November 15, 2013
Pulmonary Cell News
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Solution to Immune Mystery Could Lead to Better Therapies
Researchers have solved a long-standing conundrum about the immune system and in so doing may have found a new way to boost or reduce immunity therapeutically. The discovery concerns an unusual protein, Themis, that has been known to play a key role in the normal development of T cells, one of the most powerful elements of the immune system. [Press release from Scripps Research Institute discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Commensal Microbe-Derived Butyrate Induces the Differentiation of Colonic Regulatory T Cells
Investigators showed that a large bowel microbial fermentation product, butyrate, induces the differentiation of colonic regulatory T cells in mice. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release

Metabolites Produced by Commensal Bacteria Promote Peripheral Regulatory T-Cell Generation
Researchers studied the effect of microbial metabolites on the generation of anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells (Treg) cells. They found that in mice a short-chain fatty acid, butyrate, produced by commensal microorganisms during starch fermentation, facilitated extrathymic generation of Treg cells. [Nature] Abstract

Paired Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor A Is an Intrinsic, Self-Limiting Suppressor of IL-5-Induced Eosinophil Development
Scientists demonstrated that interleukin 5 (IL-5) activity in eosinophils is regulated by paired immunoglobulin-like receptors PIR-A and PIR-B. Upon self-recognition of β2-microglobulin molecules, PIR-B served as a permissive checkpoint for IL-5-induced development of eosinophils by suppressing the proapoptotic activities of PIR-A, which were mediated by the Grb2-Erk-Bim pathway. [Nat Immunol]
| Press Release

Naive and Memory Human B Cells Have Distinct Requirements for STAT3 Activation to Differentiate into Antibody-Secreting Plasma Cells
Investigators previously showed that loss-of-function mutations in STAT3, but not STAT1, abrogate IL-10- and IL-21-mediated differentiation of human naive B cells into plasmablasts. They report here that, in contrast to naive B cells, STAT3-deficient memory B cells responded to these STAT3-activating cytokines, differentiating into plasmablasts and secreting high levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as antigen-specific IgG. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Expression Drives Human Regulatory T Cell Resistance to Posttransplantation Cyclophosphamide
The authors studied early T cell reconstitution in patients undergoing allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide and the effects of mafosfamide, a cyclophosphamide analog, on CD4+ T cells in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions in vitro. [Sci Transl Med ] Abstract

The Duration of T Cell Stimulation Is a Critical Determinant of Cell Fate and Plasticity
Researchers constructed a logic circuit model of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways, a major feature of which is an incoherent feed-forward loop involving both TCR-dependent activation of Foxp3 and its inhibition by mammalian target of rapamycin, leading to the transient appearance of Foxp3+ cells under T helper cell-generating conditions. [Sci Signal] Abstract

Impact of 3-D Printed Polylactic Acid- and Chitosan-Based Scaffolds on Human Monocyte/Macrophage Responses: Unraveling the Effect of 3-D Structures on Inflammation
Scientists report on the analysis of the cytokine profile of human monocytes/macrophages in contact with biodegradable 3-D scaffolds with different surface properties, architecture and controlled pore geometry, fabricated by 3-D printing technology. [Acta Biomater] Abstract

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How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
Sepsis-Induced Immunosuppression: From Cellular Dysfunctions to Immunotherapy
Although the field of sepsis research has witnessed the failure of many highly touted clinical trials, a better understanding of the pathophysiological basis of the disorder and the mechanisms responsible for the associated pro- and anti-inflammatory responses provides a novel approach for treating this highly lethal condition. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

The Spleen in Local and Systemic Regulation of Immunity
The authors discuss the integration of the spleen in the regulation of immune responses locally and in the whole body and present the relevance of findings for our understanding of inflammatory and degenerative diseases and their treatments. [Immunity] Abstract

Immune Cells and Metabolic Dysfunction
Chronic inflammatory conditions and aberrant activation of immune cells have emerged as key features of obesity-related metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, cardiovascular complications, and type 2 diabetes, whereas a major research focus has been placed on the adipocyte-macrophage interaction in the context of metabolic dysfunction. [Semin Immunopathol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.

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Argos Therapeutics Presents Data Showing Memory T Cell Expansion after Administration of Fully Personalized Immunotherapy Correlates with Overall Survival Benefit in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Argos Therapeutics Inc. presented an analysis of data from its Phase II clinical trial showing that treatment with AGS-003, the company´s lead product candidate, in combination with sunitinib, induced memory T cell responses in metastatic renal cell cancer patients that correlated with statistical significance to overall survival. [Press Release from Argos Therapeutics Inc. discussing research presented at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, National Harbor] Press Release

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University of Buffalo Study Aims to Reactivate Cancer-Killing Cells
With the ultimate goal of designing new immunotherapeutic strategies, Richard B. Bankert, VMD, PhD and his team are working to re-activate cancer-killing T cells in a tumor microenvironment. To explore accomplishing this goal by blocking the activity of lipids that suppress a healthy immune response, Bankert has received a $1.66 million, five-year grant from the National Cancer Institute. [University of Buffalo]
Press Release

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center’s Rodriguez Receives Cancer Immunotherapy Presidential Award
Paulo C. Rodriguez, PhD was selected as the 2013 recipient of the Presidential Award by the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC). Established in 1991, the SITC Presidential Award is the most prestigious of the young investigator awards in immunotherapy, which are based upon excellence in quality of research and presentation, the strength of results and methods, and whether the reported research significantly advances the field of cancer immunotherapy. [EurekAlert!] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Gene Expression & Signaling in the Immune System
April 22-26, 2013
Cold Spring Harbor, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Immunology Research (The Babraham Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immune Regulation by Extracellular Matrix Proteins (Johns Hopkins University)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology and Lymphocyte Activation (University of Oxford)

Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Women’s Infectious Disease Research (Washington University School of Medicine)

Research Studentship – Imaging Membrane Lipid in Activating T Cells (King’s College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Lymphocyte Motility (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immunotherapy (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Ripk1 in Innate Immune Responses and Necroptosis (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

PhD/Postdoctoral Positions – Quantitative T-Cell Immunology (University of Leeds)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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