Volume 5.42 | Nov 1

Immune Regulation News 5.42 November 1, 2013
Pulmonary Cell News
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Transcriptional Downregulation of S1pr1 Is Required for the Establishment of Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells
The authors found that CD8+ resident memory T (TRM) cells lacked expression of the transcription factor KLF2 and its target gene S1pr1. Forced expression of S1P1 prevented the establishment of TRM cells. Cytokines that induced a TRM cell phenotype transforming growth factor-β, interleukin 33 and tumor-necrosis factor elicited downregulation of KLF2 expression in a pathway dependent on phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase and the kinase Akt, which suggested environmental regulation. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release
A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Origins and Functional Specialization of Macrophages and of Conventional and Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Mouse Skin
Scientists found that dermal macrophages had a unique scavenging role and were unable to migrate and activate T cells. Conventional dermal dendritic cells excelled both at migrating and activating T cells. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Extracellular Adenosine Regulates Naive T Cell Development and Peripheral Maintenance
Researchers produced mice with a floxed adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) gene, Adora2a, and showed that either global A2AR deletion or cre-mediated T cell deletion elicits a decline in the number of naive but not memory T cells. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Prevention of Inflammation-Mediated Bone Loss in Murine and Canine Periodontal Disease via Recruitment of Regulatory Lymphocytes
The authors previously showed that the sustained presentation of C-C motif chemokine ligand 22 from a point source effectively recruits regulatory T cells (Tregs) to the site of injection. Following administration of the Treg-recruiting formulation to the gingivae in murine experimental periodontitis, they observed increases in hallmark Treg-associated anti-inflammatory molecules, a decrease of proinflammatory cytokines, and a marked reduction in alveolar bone resorption. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

MicroRNA-Directed Program of Cytotoxic CD8+ T-Cell Differentiation
Scientists showed that inflammatory signals regulate Dicer expression in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and that deletion or depletion of Dicer in mouse or human activated CD8+ T cells causes up-regulation of perforin, granzymes, and effector cytokines. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Differential CTLA-4 Expression in Human CD4+ versus CD8+ T Cells Is Associated with Increased NFAT1 and Inhibition of CD4+ Proliferation
The authors analyzed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) in normal human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets and show for the first time that CTLA-4 is expressed significantly higher in the CD4+ T cells than in CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, they showed that blocking CTLA-4 on CD4+ T cells permits greater proliferation in CD4+ versus CD8+ cells. [Genes Immun] Abstract

Th2-Type Inflammation Instructs Inflammatory Dendritic Cells to Induce Airway Hyperreactivity
Investigators showed that Th2 cell-mediated inflammation in murine asthma models induces the expression of some markers of alternatively activated macrophage such as arginase 1 and resistin-like molecule-α in inflammatory dendritic cells by a mechanism depending on the intrinsic expression of STAT6. [Int Immunol] Abstract

Distinct Regulation of Th2 and Th17 Responses to Allergens by Pulmonary Antigen Presenting Cells In Vivo
Researchers showed that intranasal administration of fungal protease allergen induced both Th2 and Th17 responses in the lung with different kinetics. Notably, depletion of CD11c+ cells or macrophages greatly diminished the numbers of allergen-specific Th2 cells in the lung, the infiltration of eosinophils into the airway and airway hyperreactivity. [Immunol Lett] Abstract

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Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
Role of Cytokines in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Pain and Disc Content
In this review, the role of key inflammatory cytokines during each of the individual phases of degenerative disc disease, as well as the outcomes of major clinical studies aimed at blocking cytokine function, are discussed. [Nat Rev Rheumatol] Abstract

Immunobiology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Recent studies have demonstrated that in vitro expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of various origins have great capacity to modulate immune responses and change the progression of different inflammatory diseases. In this review, the authors focus on the crosstalk between MSCs and immune responses and their potential clinical applications, especially in inflammatory diseases. [Cell Death Differ] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.

The IBC’s 24th Annual Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting is your opportunity to attend the industry's most important scientific and networking meeting in the antibody field.
Immune Design Raises Up to $49 Million Series C Financing
Immune Design announced it has closed a Series C financing totaling up to $49 million. The funds will be used primarily to advance Immune Design’s cancer immunotherapy product pipeline, including proof-of-concept studies for its lead therapeutic candidates ID-LV305 and ID-G305. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

Swinburne Awarded $1.26 Million Research Funding
Swinburne has received a total of $1,267,102 under the 2013 grants scheme, announced by the Prime Minister, the Hon Tony Abbott MP together with the Minister for Health, the Hon Peter Dutton MP. Researchers from Swinburne’s Centre for Micro-Photonics have received $606,894 to investigate how a key molecular switch is regulated in immune cells and cancer cells. [Swinburne University] Press Release

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NEW 15th International Conference on Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation: Innate Lymphoid Cells
February 7-9, 2013
Irvine, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Women’s Infectious Disease Research (Washington University School of Medicine)

Research Studentship – Imaging Membrane Lipid in Activating T Cells (King’s College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Lymphocyte Motility (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immunotherapy (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Ripk1 in Innate Immune Responses and Necroptosis (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

PhD/Postdoctoral Positions – Quantitative T-Cell Immunology (University of Leeds)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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