Volume 5.28 | Jul 26

Immune Regulation News 5.28 July 26, 2013
Pulmonary Cell News
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Structural Basis of a Unique Interferon-β Signaling Axis Mediated via the Receptor IFNAR1
Type I interferons are important in regulating immune responses to pathogens and tumors. Scientists demonstrated that interferon-β (IFN-β) can uniquely and specifically ligate to IFNAR1 in an IFNAR2-independent manner, and they provided the structural basis of the IFNAR1-IFN-β interaction. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin-Elicited Basophil Responses Promote Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Researchers describe a new mouse model of eosinophilic esophagitis-like disease that developed independently of IgE, but was dependent on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and basophils, as targeting TSLP or basophils during the sensitization phase limited disease. [Nat Med]
| Press Release

The Autoimmunity-Associated Gene PTPN22 Potentiates Toll-like Receptor-Driven, Type 1 Interferon-Dependent Immunity
Investigators report that phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (Ptpn22) selectively regulated type 1 interferon (IFN) production after Toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement in myeloid cells. Ptpn22 promoted host antiviral responses and was critical for TLR agonist-induced, type 1 IFN-dependent suppression of inflammation in colitis and arthritis. [Immunity] Abstract | Press Release | Graphical Abstract

Regulation of Adipose Tissue T Cell Subsets by Stat3 Is Crucial for Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance
Scientists showed a crucial role for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in T cells in skewing adaptive immunity in visceral adipose tissue, thereby contributing to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Neddylation Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Murine and Human Dendritic Cell Function
Utilizing multiple, but complementary approaches, researchers determined the role of an important but less understood type of post-translational protein modifications, namely neddylation, in regulating dendritic cell functions. [Blood] Abstract

Interferon-α Suppresses cAMP to Disarm Human Regulatory T Cells
Investigators showed that interferon-α (IFN-α) deactivates the suppressive function of human regulatory T cells (Treg) by down-regulating their intracellular cAMP level. IFN-α-mediated Treg inactivation increased CD4+ effector T cell activation and natural killer cell tumor cytotoxicity. [Cancer Res] Abstract

β Cell-Specific IL-2 Therapy Increases Islet Foxp3+Treg and Suppresses Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector gene delivery was employed to localize IL-2 expression to the islets of NOD mice. Injection of a double-stranded AAV vector encoding IL-2 driven by a mouse insulin promoter increased Foxp3-expressing Treg in the islets but not the draining pancreatic lymph nodes. [Diabetes] Abstract

Tumor-Induced Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Subsets Exert Either Inhibitory or Stimulatory Effects on Distinct CD8+ T-Cell Activation Events
Employing an in vitro co-culture system, the authors demonstrated that splenic myeloid-derived suppressor cell subsets suppress antigen-driven CD8+ T-cell proliferation, but differ in their dependency on IFN-γ, STAT-1, IRF-1 and nitric oxide to do so. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Apoptotic Cell Administration Enhances Pancreatic Islet Engraftment by Induction of Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells
Scientists demonstrated that intravenous administration of donor apoptotic splenocytes can promote pancreatic islet engraftment by inducing generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells and expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. [Cell Mol Immmunol] Abstract

A Mammalian Pseudogene lncRNA at the Interface of Inflammation and Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics
Researchers discovered and characterized the sets of mouse long coding RNAs (lncRNAs) induced by inflammatory signaling via TNFα. TNFα regulates hundreds of lncRNAs, including 54 pseudogene lncRNAs, several of which show exquisitely selective expression in response to specific cytokines and microbial components in a NF-κB-dependent manner. [eLife] Full Article | Press Release

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A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
Toll-Like Receptor Regulation of Effector T Lymphocyte Function
The authors discuss recent findings regarding Toll-like receptor (TLR) functionality in T lymphocytes with a specific emphasis on the promotion of T helper cell-dependent inflammation through direct TLR signaling. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

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OncoSec Medical Presents Positive Immune Response Data from Phase II Study at the 8th World Congress
OncoSec Medical Inc., a company developing its advanced-stage ImmunoPulse DNA-based immunotherapy and NeoPulse therapy to treat solid tumors, announced interim immune response data from the company’s Phase II study of ImmunoPulse in patients with metastatic melanoma. [Press release from OncoSec Medical Inc. discussing research presented at the 8th World Congress of Melanoma, Hamburg] Press Release  
Astellas Announces FDA Approval of ASTAGRAF XL™ (Tacrolimus Extended-Release Capsules) for the Prophylaxis of Organ Rejection in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients
Astellas Pharma US, Inc., announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ASTAGRAF XL™ (tacrolimus extended-release capsules) for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving a kidney transplant with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. [Astellas Pharma US, Inc.] Press Release

OphthaliX to Initiate a Phase II Study of CF101 for the Treatment of Uveitis
OphthaliX Inc., announced the submission of a Phase II study protocol of its drug candidate, CF101, for the treatment of uveitis. The Phase II study will be conducted in Europe and Israel and will investigate the efficacy and safety of CF101 in 45 patients with active, sight-threatening, noninfectious intermediate or posterior uveitis, who will be treated with either CF101 or a placebo for a period of six months. [OphthaliX Inc.] Press Release

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NEW 11th World Congress on Inflammation
September 21-25, 2013
Natal, Brazil

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Innate Immune Signaling in the Developing Intestine (University of Connecticut Health Center)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immune Regulation and Regulatory T Cells in Inflammation (University of Oslo – Centre for Immune Regulation)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Mount Sinai School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunology (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

PhD Position – MMP-9 Domain Structure Involvement in Immunomodulation (KU Leuven)

PhD Research Position – Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Junior or Senior Group Leader – Immunology/Infection/Inflammation (Center of Pathophysiology of Toulouse Purpan)

Postdoctoral Position – Mechanistic Studies in Immune Responses (Medical University of Vienna)

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