Volume 5.19 | May 24

Immune Regulation News 5.19 May 24, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY

Penn Study Shows How Immune System Peacefully Co-Exists with “Good” Bacteria
Scientists report that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) directly limit the response by inflammatory T cells to commensal bacteria in the gut of mice. Loss of this ILC function effectively puts the immune system on an extended war footing against the good, commensal bacteria – a condition observed in multiple chronic inflammatory diseases. [Press release from Penn Medicine discussing online prepublication in Nature]
Press Release | Abstract


How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles

PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Cytomegalovirus Vectors Violate CD8+ T Cell Epitope Recognition Paradigms
Scientists found that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) protein-expressing rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors elicit SIV-specific CD8+ T cells that recognize unusual, diverse, and highly promiscuous epitopes, including dominant responses to epitopes restricted by class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

T Cell Regulation Mediated by Interaction of Soluble CD52 with the Inhibitory Receptor Siglec-10
Researchers found that human and mouse antigen-activated T cells with high expression of the lymphocyte surface marker CD52 suppressed other T cells. CD52hiCD4+ T cells were distinct from CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Their suppression was mediated by soluble CD52 released by phospholipase C. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

The Unfolded Protein Response Element IRE1α Senses Bacterial Proteins Invading the ER to Activate Retinoic-Acid Inducible Gene 1 and Innate Immune Signaling
Investigators report that inositol-requiring-1α (IRE1α), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that signals in the unfolded protein response, is activated to induce inflammation by binding a portion of cholera toxin as it co-opts the ER to cause disease. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Depleting Tumor-Specific Tregs at a Single Site Eradicates Disseminated Tumors
Scientists showed that intratumoral coinjection of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-OX40 together with CpG depleted tumor-infiltrating Tregs. This in situ immunomodulation, which was performed with low doses of antibodies in a single tumor, generated a systemic antitumor immune response that eradicated disseminated disease in mice. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

A TSPO Ligand Is Protective in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Results showed that etifoxine attenuated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) severity when administered before the development of clinical signs and also improved symptomatic recovery when administered at the peak of the disease. In both cases, recovery was correlated with diminished inflammatory pathology in the lumbar spinal cord. Modulation of translocator protein (TSPO) activity by etifoxine led to less peripheral immune cell infiltration of the spinal cord, and increased oligodendroglial regeneration after inflammatory demyelination in EAE. [EMBO Mol Med] Abstract | Press Release

Anti-CD47 Antibody-Mediated Phagocytosis of Cancer by Macrophages Primes an Effective Antitumor T-Cell Response
Scientists showed that anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer by macrophages can initiate an antitumor T-cell immune response. Using the ovalbumin model antigen system, anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer cells by macrophages resulted in increased priming of OT-I T cells (CD8+) but decreased priming of OT-II T cells (CD4+). [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Construction of Self-Recognizing Regulatory T Cells from Conventional T Cells by Controlling CTLA-4 and IL-2 Expression
To determine the molecular basis of regulatory T (Treg) cell suppressive activity and their self-skewed T-cell receptor repertoire formation, investigators attempted to reconstruct these Treg-specific properties in conventional T (Tconv) cells by genetic manipulation. They showed that Tconv cells rendered IL-2 deficient and constitutively expressing transgenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) were potently suppressive in vitro when they were preactivated by antigenic stimulation. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

CD11chighCD8+ Regulatory T Cell Feedback Inhibits CD4 T Cell Immune Response via Fas Ligand-Fas Pathway
The authors identified CD11chighCD8+ T cells as a new subset of CD8+ regulatory T cells. During Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus infection, two subsets of CD8 T cells were classified according to the expression level of CD11c, including CD11clowCD8+ and CD11chighCD8+ T cells. CD11clowCD8+ T cells, existing during the whole period of infection, act as conventional activated T cells to kill target cells in a perforin-dependent manner. [J Immunol] Abstract

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REVIEWS

Enhanced Killing Activity of Regulatory T Cells Ameliorates Inflammation and Autoimmunity
Regulatory T cells (Treg) are pivotal suppressor elements in immune homeostasis with potential therapeutic applications in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Using Treg as vehicles for targeted immunomodulation, a short-lived Fas-ligand chimeric protein was found efficient in preventing the progression of autoimmune insulitis in NOD mice, and amelioration of chronic colitis and graft versus host disease. [Autoimmune Rev] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immune regulation field.

INDUSTRY NEWS

Cancer Research Institute Hosting Free Cancer Immunotherapy Webinars
The Cancer Research Institute is holding a series of five webinars to talk about breakthroughs in cancer immunotherapy research and treatments as part of Cancer Immunotherapy Awareness Month. Cancer Research Institute is making the webinars free and open to the public as a way to promote awareness and education about cancer immunotherapy. [Cancer Research Institute] Press Release

NW Bio Initiates Phase III DCVax®-L Brain Cancer Trial In Europe: King’s College Hospital In The UK Is First Site to Open

Northwest Biotherapeutics (NW Bio) announced that its Phase III clinical trial with DCVax®-L for brain cancer has been initiated at King’s College Hospital in the UK. This is one of the first late-stage clinical trials in Europe with active immune therapies, and its opening is the culmination of years of planning, development and regulatory and institutional approvals. [Northwest Biotherapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Cellular Biomedicine Group Marks the Launch of China Clinical Trial for TC-DC Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Cellular Biomedicine Group announced that the company launched a clinical trial for TC-DC (Tumor Stem Cell Specific Dendritic Cell) therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common type of liver cancer. It is the first immune cell clinical trial of its kind in China. [Cellular Biomedicine Group ] Press Release


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POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2013 Annual Meeting
May 31-June 4, 2013
Chicago, United States

NEW
Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) 2013
June 27-30, 2013
Boston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

NEW Research Associates – Immune Response (NCSR Demokritos, Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety)

NEW Researcher – In Vivo Imaging of Disease Activity in Immune Mediated Diseases (Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat Muenster)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Mechanistic Studies in Immune Responses (Medical University of Vienna)

Research Associate – NeuroOncology (University of Chicago – Department of Surgery)
 
PhD Studentship – Role of Epigenetic Regulators in Control of Immunity and Inflammation (King’s College London)


Postdoctoral Researcher – Innate Immunity (Massachusetts General Hospital / Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Tumor Immunology (Northwestern University – Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunological Pathways in Human Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Yale University – School of Medicine)

PhD Studentship – Mucosal Immunology (KU Leuven Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders)


Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (INSERM 1020)


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