Volume 5.11 | Mar 22

Immune Regulation News 5.11 March 22, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Disparate Individual Fates Compose Robust CD8+ T Cell Immunity
By in vivo fate mapping, scientists found a striking variability of immune responses derived from individual CD8+ T cells and showed that robust acute and recall immunity requires the initial recruitment of multiple precursors. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

The Chemotactic Receptor EBI2 Regulates the Homeostasis, Localization and Immunological Function of Splenic Dendritic Cells
The authors found a difference in expression of the chemotactic receptor EBI2 on splenic dendritic cell (DC) subsets and that EBI2 regulated the positioning and homeostasis of DCs in the spleen. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Plasticity of TH17 Cells in Peyer’s Patches Is Responsible for the Induction of T Cell-Dependent IgA Responses
Through the use of interleukin 17 (IL-17) fate-reporter mice, scientists found that endogenous cells of the TH17 subset of helper T cells in lymphoid organs of naive mice preferentially homed to the intestines and were maintained independently of IL-23. In Peyer’s patches, such TH17 cells acquired a follicular helper T cell phenotype and induced the development of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-producing germinal center B cells. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Persistent Antigen and Germinal Center B Cells Sustain T Follicular Helper Cell Responses and Phenotype
Researchers report that the magnitude of the T follicular helper cell response was dictated by the amount of antigen and directly correlated with the magnitude of the germinal center B cell response. [Immunity] Abstract

Soluble Ligands for NK Cell Receptors Promote Evasion of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells from NK Cell Anti-Tumor Activity
The authors investigated the role of tumor cell-released soluble and exosomal ligands for natural killer (NK) cell receptors that modulate NK cell activity. [Blood] Abstract

Cooperativity between CD8+ T Cells, Non-Neutralizing Antibodies, and Alveolar Macrophages Is Important for Heterosubtypic Influenza Virus Immunity
The authors demonstrated using a recombinant influenza virus expressing the LCMV GP33-41 epitope that influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cells and virus-specific non-neutralizing antibodies each are relatively ineffective at conferring heterosubtypic protective immunity alone. However when combined, virus-specific CD8 T cells and non-neutralizing antibodies cooperatively elicit robust protective immunity. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

VEGF Blockade Enables Oncolytic Cancer Virotherapy in Part by Modulating Intratumoral Myeloid Cells
Virotherapy induced an acute neutrophilic infiltrate, a relative decrease of intratumoral macrophages, and a myeloid cell-dependent upregulation of host-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anti-VEGF antibodies, bevacizumab and r84, the latter of which binds VEGF and selectively inhibits binding to VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) but not VEGFR1, enhanced the antitumor effects of virotherapy, in part due to decreased angiogenesis but not increased virus production. [Mol Ther] Abstract | Press Release

Allergic Conjunctivitis Renders CD4+ T Cells Resistant to T Regulatory Cells and Exacerbates Corneal Allograft Rejection
Corneal allograft rejection in BALB/c allergic hosts were analyzed using a short ragweed pollen model of allergic conjunctivitis. Allergic conjunctivitis did not induce exaggerated T-cell responses to donor C57BL/6 alloantigens or stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. [Am J Transplant] Abstract

The Sirtuin Inhibitor Cambinol Impairs MAPK Signaling, Inhibits Inflammatory and Innate Immune Responses and Protects from Septic Shock
The authors studied the effects of cambinol on microbial sensing by mouse and human immune cells and on host innate immune responses in vivo. [Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res] Abstract

Using Macrophage Activation to Augment Immunotherapy of Established Tumors
The authors have previously reported that 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic-acid (DMXAA) has the ability to change tumor-associated macrophages phenotypes, inducing a tumor microenvironment conducive to antitumor immune responses. Here they combined DMXAA with active immunotherapies, and evaluated anti-tumor efficacy, immune cell phenotypes, and tumor microenvironment. [Brit J Cancer] Abstract

Liver-Primed Memory T Cells Generated under Noninflammatory Conditions Provide Anti-Infectious Immunity
Scientists identified T cell priming in absence of inflammation enabled by cross-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Such priming generated memory T cells that were spared from deletion by immature dendritic cells (DCs). Similar to central memory T cells, liver-primed T cells differentiated into effector CD8+ T cells upon antigen re-encounter on matured DCs even after prolonged absence of antigen. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Press Release

Isolate Mouse Cells In As Little As 15 Minutes

REVIEWS
Molecular Mechanisms of T Cell Co-Stimulation and Co-Inhibition
The authors focus on emerging concepts and review the mechanisms through which T cell activation, differentiation and function is controlled by co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract
INDUSTRY NEWS

NW Bio Receives U.S. Patent on Broad Processes for Producing More Potent Dendritic Cells
Northwest Biotherapeutics (NW Bio) announced that it has been issued a key U.S. patent covering novel processes for manufacturing human dendritic cells. The cells produced through these processes are much more potent in their capacity to activate the immune system than those produced by the standard methods used throughout academia and industry to produce dendritic cells. [Northwest Biotherapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Immune Therapy from Austria Receives Orphan Drug Designation from European Medicines Agency
The European Medicines Agency awarded the Austrian biotech company Activartis an Orphan Drug Designation for its innovative Cancer Immune Therapy AV0113. The Orphan Drug Designation applies specifically to the use of AV0113 for the treatment of glioma, a type of brain tumor, which afflicts around one in 10.000 people in the EU. [Activartis Biotech GmbH] Press Release

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital Announces Issuance of U.S. Patent for Genetically Modified Human Immune Cells for Cancer Therapy
The United States Patent and Trademark Office awarded St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital U.S. patent number 8,399,645 for St. Jude’s invention of compositions for genetically modifying human immune cells so they can destroy some of the most common forms of cancer in children and adults. [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW 6th International Singapore Symposium of Immunology
June 5-6, 2013
Singapore, Singapore

NEW
Advanced Summer School – Interrogations at the Biointerface: Inflammation/Repair Interface
June 25-28, 2013
Porto, Portugal

Visit
our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Faculty Positions – Cancer Inflammation and Tolerance (Georgia Health Sciences University Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Position – IL-17 and Inflammation Research (Hospices Civils de Lyon)

PhD Candidate – Immunoregulatory Properties of Stromal and Immune Cells (University of Saarland, Internal Medicine II)

Postdoctoral Position – NK/T Cells (The Ohio State University – Comprehensive Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunotherapeutics in Childhood Cancer (Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Position – Type 1 Diabetes and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (University of Florida)

PhD Student/ Early Stage Researcher – T Cell Regulation (The Netherlands Cancer Institute [NKI-AvL])

PhD Studentship – Thymic Dendritic Cells and Regulation of T-Cell Development (University of Birmingham / MRC Centre for Immune Regulation)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immunology (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School)


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