Volume 5.02 | Jan 18

Immune Regulation News 5.02 January 18, 2013
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A T-bet Gradient Controls the Fate and Function of CCR6-RORγt+ Innate Lymphoid Cells
Scientists provide evidence that the transcription factor T-bet determines the fate of a distinct lineage of CCR6-retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptor-γt-positive (RORγt+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Postnatally emerging CCR6-RORγt+ ILCs upregulated T-bet and this was controlled by cues from the commensal microbiota and interleukin-23. [Nature] Abstract

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Sex Differences in the Gut Microbiome Drive Hormone-Dependent Regulation of Autoimmunity
The authors demonstrated a direct interaction between sex hormones and early life microbial exposures on the control of autoimmunity in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of type 1 diabetes. [Science]
Abstract | Press Release

Interstitial Dendritic Cell Guidance by Haptotactic Chemokine Gradients
Directional guidance of cells via gradients of chemokines is considered crucial for embryonic development, cancer dissemination, and immune responses. Nevertheless, the concept still lacks direct experimental confirmation in vivo. Here, researchers identified endogenous gradients of the chemokine CCL21 within mouse skin and show that they guide dendritic cells toward lymphatic vessels. [Science]
Abstract | Press Release

IL-1R Signaling in Dendritic Cells Replaces Pattern-Recognition Receptors in Promoting CD8+ T Cell Responses to Influenza A Virus
The authors found that after infection with live influenza A virus, signaling through the interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) was required for productive priming of CD8+ T cells, but signaling through the pattern-recognition receptors TLR7 and RIG-I was not. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Amphiregulin Enhances Regulatory T Cell-Suppressive Function via the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
Researchers showed that Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells express epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor under inflammatory conditions. Stimulation with the EGF-like growth factor Amphiregulin (AREG) markedly enhanced Treg cell function in vitro, and in a colitis and tumor vaccination model they showed that AREG was critical for efficient Treg cell function in vivo. [Immunity] Abstract

NleB, a Bacterial Effector with Glycosyltransferase Activity, Targets GADPH Function to Inhibit NF-kB Activation
Investigators identified the mammalian glycolysis enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as an NleB-interacting protein. Further, they discovered that GAPDH interacts with the TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), a protein required for TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation, and regulates TRAF2 polyubiquitination. [Cell Host Microbe] Full Article | Press Release

NK Cell Responses to Cytomegalovirus Infection Lead to Stable Imprints in the Human KIR Repertoire and Involve Activating KIRs
As killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) expression in a given NK cell is genetically hard-wired, scientists hypothesized that KIR repertoire perturbations reflect expansions of unique NK cell subsets and may be used to trace adaptation of the NK cell compartment to viral infections. [Blood] Abstract

BRG1-Mediated Immune Tolerance: Facilitation of Treg Activation and Partial Independence of Chromatin Remodeling
Researchers report that despite the known proinflammatory role of the chromatin-remodeling factor BRG1 in CD4 cells, deleting Brg1 in all αβ T cell lineages led to fatal inflammation, which reflected essential roles of BRG1 in regulatory T cells (Tregs). [EMBO J] Abstract

Complement Mediated Signaling on Pulmonary CD103+ Dendritic Cells Is Critical for Their Migratory Function in Response to Influenza Infection
Using a model of influenza infection, the authors demonstrated that complement component C3 is critically required for efficient emigration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the lung to the draining lymph node (dLN). C3 deficiency affect lung DC-mediated viral antigen transport to the dLN, resulting in severely compromised priming of virus-specific T cell responses. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Rapid αβ T-Cell Responses Orchestrate Innate Immunity in Response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A
The authors demonstrated that αβ T cells have an essential role in priming innate immunity in the lung after Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) inhalation. They found that SEA induces waves of cellular activation, cytokine production, and migration into the lung tissue and airways. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

TCR Activation Kinetics and Feedback Regulation in Primary Human T Cells
Researchers analyzed signaling dynamics correlating with either unresponsiveness or proliferation induced upon TCR/CD28 ligation in primary human T cells. They used two widely employed methods to stimulate T cells in vitro, antibodies either cross-linked in solution or immobilized on microbeads. [Cell Commun Signal] Abstract | Full Article

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Innate B Cell Helpers Reveal Novel Types of Antibody Responses
Studies have shown that B cells can receive innate thymus-dependent (TD) help from natural killer T cells and innate thymus-independent (TI) help from cells such as neutrophils but that the outcome of such help differs from conventional TD and TI responses. The authors update the classification of antibody responses to take into account these emerging types of B cell helpers. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Regulatory B Cells in Autoimmune Diseases
Researchers discuss the recent advances that lead to the understanding of the development and function of regulatory B cells and the implications of B cells in human autoimmune diseases. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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Transplant Immune Therapy Expert Joins Methodist Faculty
Xian Li, M.D., Ph.D., a renowned expert on therapies that coax the body’s acceptance of donor organs, has joined the Methodist J.C. Walter Jr. Transplant Center as its new director of transplant immunology. [The Methodist Hospital System] Press Release

Argos Therapeutics Enrolls Initial Patients in Pivotal Phase III ADAPT Study
Argos Therapeutics Inc. announced that the first patients have been enrolled in the ADAPT Phase III clinical study for AGS-003. AGS-003 is an investigational, fully personalized, dendritic-cell based immunotherapy. [Argos Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Northwestern Medicine Plans $1 Billion Research Investment
Leaders of Northwestern Medicine, comprising Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation and Northwestern Memorial HealthCare, announced they have made a transformational commitment of more than $1 billion toward creating a leading medical research enterprise on Northwestern’s campus in Chicago’s Streeterville neighborhood. [Northwestern University] Press Release


National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)


NEW Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology: Host Response in Tuberculosis
March 13-18, 2013
Whistler, Canada

NEW 14th Annual Immunogenicity for Biotherapeutics
March 18-20, 2013
Baltimore, United States

our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.


Scientist or Engineer – hPSC Bioengineer (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – HIV Research  (Sandra Rotman Centre for Global Health)

Postdoctoral Position – Immune Regulation (Trinity College Dublin)

Associate Scientist – Clinical Immunology (Crucell Holland B.V.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Transcriptional Regulation in CD8 T Lymphocytes (Université Libre de Bruxelles – Institute for Medical Immunology)

Postdoctoral Fellow (Medical University of Warsaw)

Faculty Positions – Cancer Inflammation and Tolerance (Georgia Health Sciences University Cancer Center)

PhD Studentship/Postdoctoral Positions – Tumor Immunology and Cancer Stem Cell Research (University Clinics Freiburg)

PhD Research Position – Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity (Weizmann Institute of Science)

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