Volume 4.47 | Dec 7

Immune Regulation News 4.47 December 7, 2012
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Ca2+ Regulates T-Cell Receptor Activation by Modulating the Charge Property of Lipids
Scientists showed that Ca2+ can bind directly to anionic phospholipids and thus modulate membrane protein function. The activation of T-cell antigen receptor-CD3 complex, a key membrane receptor for adaptive immunity, is regulated by ionic interactions between positively charged CD3ε/ζ cytoplasmic domains and negatively charged phospholipids in the plasma membrane. [Nature] Abstract

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Chemotherapy-Triggered Cathepsin B Release in Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Activates the Nlrp3 Inflammasome and Promotes Tumor Growth
The authors showed that two clinically used chemotherapeutic agents, gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, activate the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing-3 protein (Nlrp3)-dependent caspase-1 activation complex in myeloid-derived suppressor cells, leading to production of interleukin-1β, which curtails anticancer immunity. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

Sustained Effector Function of IL-12/15/18-Preactivated NK Cells against Established Tumors
Natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy of cancer is hampered by the transient effector function of NK cells. Recently, mouse IL-12/15/18-preactivated NK cells were shown to persist with sustained effector function in vivo. Here, the authors investigated the antitumor activity of such NK cells. [J Exp Med]
Abstract | Press Release

Inducible Colitis-Associated Glycome Capable of Stimulating the Proliferation of Memory CD4+ T Cells
Researchers propose that a unique glycome that can be identified through the binding of galectin-4 is created on local, but not systemic, memory CD4+ T cells under diverse intestinal inflammatory conditions, but not in the healthy state. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Positive Intergenic Feedback Circuitry, Involving EBF1 and FOXO1, Orchestrates B-Cell Fate
The authors demonstrated that B-cell development in FOXO1-deficient mice is arrested in the common lymphoid progenitor LY6D+ cell stage. They revealed that this phenotype closely resembles the arrest in B-cell development observed in early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1)-deficient mice. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Human Macrophage and Dendritic Cell-Specific Silencing of High-Mobility Group Protein B1 Ameliorates Sepsis in a Humanized Mouse Model
Scientists showed that human hematopoietic cells are required to induce sepsis-induced mortality following cecal ligation and puncture in the severely immunodeficient nonobese diabetic/SCID/IL2Rγ−/− mice, and siRNA treatment to inhibit high-mobility group protein B1 release by human macrophages and dendritic cells dramatically reduces sepsis-induced mortality. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

PTPN22 Silencing in the NOD Model Indicates the Type 1 Diabetes-Associated Allele Is Not a Loss-of-Function Variant
Investigators generated transgenic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice in which Ptpn22 can be inducibly silenced by RNA interference. They found that Ptpn22 silencing in the NOD model replicated many of the phenotypes observed in C57BL/6 Ptpn22 knockout mice, including an increase in regulatory T cells. [Diabetes]
Abstract | Press Release

Quorum Sensing Contributes to Activated IgM-Secreting B Cell Homeostasis
By using sequential cell transfers and B cell populations from several mutant mice, researchers were able to identify novel mechanisms regulating the size of the IgM-secreting B cell pool. [J Immunol] Abstract

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor p55 Controls Regulatory T Cell Responses in Yersinia-Induced Reactive Arthritis
The authors aimed to investigate the expansion and function of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in a reactive arthritis animal model. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

T-Cell Intrinsic and Extrinsic Mechanisms of p27Kip1 in the Regulation of CD8 T-Cell Memory
Researchers investigated whether p27Kip1 regulates CD8 T-cell memory by T-cell-intrinsic or T-cell-extrinsic mechanisms, by conditional ablation of p27Kip1 in T cells or non-T cells. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies

REVIEWS

Differentiation and Function of Foxp3+ Effector Regulatory T Cells
Investigators discuss the factors that control the differentiation of effector regulatory T cells and their importance in disease settings. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

B Regulatory Cells in Cancer
Researchers summarize our current knowledge of B regulatory cells, as well as the body of evidence pointing towards a role for B cells in general, and B regulatory cells in particular, in promoting tumor growth. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

Anti-Donor Immune Responses Elicited by Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells: What Have We Learned so Far?
The authors reviewed available experimental data to determine whether good in vivo evidence exists in support of the ‘immune privileged’ status of allogeneic (allo)-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). They also examined published studies regarding the immunogenicity of allo-MSCs following activation by inflammatory stimuli or following differentiation. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

SCIENCE NEWS
Inovio Pharmaceuticals Announces Positive Interim Results in Phase II Leukemia Trial
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that preliminary results of a phase II clinical trial to treat leukemia with a WT1 DNA vaccine delivered with Inovio’s proprietary electroporation delivery system showed robust vaccine-specific antibody responses in all vaccinated subjects evaluated to date. T cell immune responses, including those of the “killer T cells,” were detected. [Press release from Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc. discussing research presented at DNA Vaccines 2012, San Diego] Press Release
INDUSTRY NEWS

InnaVirVax: The Phase I/IIa Clinical Study of Its VAC-3S Immunotherapeutic Vaccine in the Treatment of HIV Infection Has Achieved Its Primary Endpoint
InnaVirVax, a biopharmaceutical company specialized in research and development on therapeutic and diagnostic solutions for diseases linked to immune dysregulation, has just announced successful completion of the first clinical development phase for VAC-3S immunotherapy in the treatment of HIV infections. [InnaVirVax] Press Release

Altravax, Inc. Awarded $3.45 Million in NIH Funds for Vaccines to HIV/AIDS
Altravax, Inc. announced that it has been awarded two research grants worth a total of $3.45 million from the NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for research on antibody-inducing vaccines for HIV-1. [Business Wire] Press Release

Selecta Biosciences and Sanofi Sign Global Collaboration to Develop Antigen-Specific Immunotherapies for up to Three Allergy Indications Based on Selecta’s Synthetic Vaccine Particle Technology
Selecta Biosciences, Inc. announced that it has entered into a strategic global collaboration with Sanofi to discover highly targeted, antigen-specific immunotherapies for life-threatening allergies. The products resulting from this collaboration will leverage Selecta’s proprietary Synthetic Vaccine Particle platform which has unique capabilities to engineer nanoparticles with the ideal structure and composition to produce immune tolerance by balancing the overactive response to specific allergy-causing antigens. [Selecta Biosciences, Inc.] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Keystone Symposia – Antibodies as Drugs
January 27-February 1, 2013
Vancouver, Canada

Visit
our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Product Quality Scientist (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist – Endothelial Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist or Engineer – hPSC Bioengineer (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Quality Control Analyst (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Stem Cells (Cancer Institute of New Jersey)

Research Associate in T Cell Immunology (Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Neuroscience)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology)

Researcher: Treg Cell Therapy for AID (Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – HIV Research  (Sandra Rotman Centre for Global Health)

Postdoctoral Position – Lupus and Immunology Research (University of Chicago)

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