Volume 4.46 | Nov 30

Immune Regulation News 4.46 November 30, 2012
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Progenitor and Terminal Subsets of CD8+ T Cells Cooperate to Contain Chronic Viral Infection
Researchers found that two distinct states of virus-specific CD8+ T cells exist in chronically infected mice and humans. Differential expression of the T-box transcription factors T-bet and Eomesodermin facilitated the cooperative maintenance of the pool of antiviral CD8+ T cells during chronic viral infection. [Science] Abstract | Press Release


Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

STATs Shape the Active Enhancer Landscape of T Cell Populations
The authors used CD4+ T cells as a model of differentiation, mapping the activity of cell-type-specific enhancer elements in T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells. Their data established that STAT proteins have a major impact on the activation of lineage-specific enhancers and the suppression of enhancers associated with alternative cell fates. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract


ARIH2 Is Essential for Embryogenesis, and Its Hematopoietic Deficiency Causes Lethal Activation of the Immune System
Scientists found that in dendritic cells (DCs), ARIH2 caused degradation of the inhibitor IκBβ in the nucleus, which abrogated its ability to sequester, protect and transcriptionally coactivate the transcription factor subunit p65 in the nucleus. ARIH2 caused dysregulated activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in DCs, which led to lethal activation of the immune system in ARIH2-sufficent mice reconstituted with ARIH2-deficient hematopoietic stem cells. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

NK Cells Impede Glioblastoma Virotherapy through NKp30 and NKp46 Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors
Researchers found that within hours of oncolytic Herpes simplex viral (oHSV) infection of glioblastomas in mice, activated natural killer (NK) cells are recruited to the site of infection. This response substantially diminished the efficacy of glioblastoma virotherapy. In vitro, human NK cells preferentially lysed oHSV-infected human glioblastoma cell lines. This enhanced killing depended on the NK cell natural cytotoxicity receptors NKp30 and NKp46, whose ligands are upregulated in oHSV-infected glioblastoma cells. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

IkBNS Protein Mediates Regulatory T Cell Development via Induction of the Foxp3 Transcription Factor
Scientists showed that the atypical inhibitor of NFkB (IkB) IkBNS drives Foxp3 expression via association with the promoter and the conserved noncoding sequence 3 of the Foxp3 locus. Consequently, IkBNS deficiency leads to a substantial reduction of Foxp3+ Treg cells in vivo and impaired Foxp3 induction upon transforming growth factor-β treatment in vitro. [Immunity] Abstract

Inositol Tetrakisphosphate Limits NK Cell Effector Functions by Controlling Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Signaling
Investigators identified a novel role for the phosphorylated IP3 metabolite inositol(1,3,4,5)tetrakisphosphate (IP4) in NK cells. IP4 promotes NK cell terminal differentiation and acquisition of a mature NK cell receptors (NKR) repertoire. This identifies IP4 as an important novel regulator of NK cell development and function, and expands the understanding of the therapeutically important mechanisms dampening NK cell responses. [Blood] Abstract | Press Release

T-Cell Death following Immune Activation Is Mediated by Mitochondria-Localized SARM
Researchers report that sterile α– and heat armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM) is proapoptotic during T-cell immune response. SARM expression is significantly reduced in natural killer (NK)/T lymphoma patients compared with healthy individuals, suggesting that decreased SARM supports NK/T-cell proliferation. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Targeted Coating with Antigenic Peptide Renders Tumor Cells Susceptible to CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Killing
Scientists created a therapeutic agent comprised of a tumor-homing module fused to a functional domain capable of selectively rendering tumor cells sensitive to foreign antigen-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated immune attack, and thereby, circumventing concerns for immune tolerance. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Therapeutic Potential of B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator Expressed on CD8+ T Cells for Contact Hypersensitivity
To determine the roles of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) in hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS), BTLA-deficient (BTLA−/−) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to DNFB-induced CHS, severe combined immunodeficient mice were injected with CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells from either WT mice or BTLA−/− mice were subjected to CHS. [J Invest Dermatol] Abstract

Isolate Mouse Cells In As Little As 15 Minutes

REVIEWS
Tolerogenic Dendritic Cell Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis: Where Are We Now?
The authors provide an update on tolerogenic dendritic cell therapy, in particular in relation to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and discuss the challenges and the future perspectives of this new experimental immunotherapy. [Clin Exp Immunol] Abstract
SCIENCE NEWS
Final Results of the Phase II Study in Crohn’s
NEOVACS announced the final results of the phase II study of its TNF-Kinoid active immunotherapy in Crohn’s Disease, in patients who had lost response to a monoclonal antibody TNF inhibitor. [Press release from NEOVACS discussing research presented at the ACR Annual Meeting, Washington ] Press Release
INDUSTRY NEWS

Coronado Initiates Phase II/II Trial of CNDO-109 Activated Allogeneic Natural Killer Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Coronado Biosciences, Inc. announced the initiation of a phase I/II dose escalation trial of allogeneic natural killer cells activated by the company’s CNDO-109 in patients in first complete remission from acute myeloid leukemia, and who are deemed high-risk for relapse. [Coronado Biosciences, Inc.] Press Release


£5.2 Million to Improve Understanding of Aging Immune System

A team of researchers from the University of Manchester, working with the University of Warwick, have been awarded £5.2 million to investigate our immune response and how it is affected by aging. [The University of Manchester] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Lorne Infection and Immunity Conference 2013
February 20-22, 2013
Mantra Lorne, Australia


Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Product Quality Scientist (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist – Endothelial Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist or Engineer – hPSC Bioengineer (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Quality Control Analyst (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Department of Microbiology and Immunology (Penn State University College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Stem Cells (Cancer Institute of New Jersey)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Singapore Immunology Network [A*STAR])

Research Associate in T Cell Immunology (Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Neuroscience)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology)

Researcher: Treg Cell Therapy for AID (Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele)


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