Volume 4.43 | Nov 9

Immune Regulation News 4.43 November 9, 2012
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Elimination of Germinal Center-Derived Self-Reactive B Cells Is Governed by the Location and Concentration of Self-Antigen
Self-reactive B cells generated de novo in the germinal center (GC) failed to survive when their target self-antigen was either expressed ubiquitously or specifically in cells proximal to the GC microenvironment. By contrast, GC B cells that recognized rare or tissue-specific self-antigens were not eliminated, and could instead undergo positive selection by cross-reactive foreign antigen and produce plasma cells secreting high-affinity autoantibodies. [Immunity] Abstract | Press Release

Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Novel Foxo1-Dependent Transcriptional Programs Control Treg Cell Function
Findings showed that the evolutionarily ancient Akt-forkhead box O-1 (Foxo1) signaling module controls a novel genetic program indispensable for regulatory T (Treg) cell function. [Nature] Abstract

SAMHD1 Restricts HIV-1 Infection in Resting CD4+ T Cells
Researchers showed that the deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase SAMHD1 prevents reverse transcription of HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4+ T cells. [Nat Med] Abstract

Neutrophils Transport Antigen from the Dermis to the Bone Marrow, Initiating a Source of Memory CD8+ T Cells
Researchers found that after intradermal injection of modified vaccinia Ankara virus, unexpected sources of newly primed polyclonal virus-specific CD8+, but not CD4+, T cells were localized in the bone marrow (BM) and the draining lymph nodes prior to blood circulation. They provide direct evidence for how antigen is transported to the BM, providing a source of virus-specific memory CD8+ T cells. [Immunity] Abstract

TLR4 and TRIF-Dependent Stimulation of B Lymphocytes by Peptide Liposomes Enables T-Cell Independent Isotype Switch in Mice
Investigators demonstrated that peptides can induce T-cell independent isotype switching when antigen and TLR ligand are assembled and appropriately presented directly to B lymphocytes. [Blood] Abstract

Macrophage Microvesicles Induce Macrophage Differentiation and miR-223 Transfer
Researchers characterized macrophage-derived microvesicles and explored their role in the differentiation of naïve monocytes. They also identified the microRNA (miRNA) content of the macrophage-derived microvesicles. [Blood] Abstract

Encounter with Antigen-Specific Primed CD4 T Cells Promotes MHC Class II Degradation in Dendritic Cells
Scientists investigated whether antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) that have been in contact with antigen-specific CD4 T cells retain the ability to stimulate additional naïve T cells. They showed that the encounter with antigen-specific primed CD4 T cells induces the degradation of surface major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC-II) in antigen-loaded DCs and inhibits the ability of these DCs to stimulate additional naïve CD4 T cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

IL-7 Abrogates Suppressive Activity of Human CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells and Allows Expansion of Alloreactive and Autoreactive T Cells
Because uncontrolled activation and expansion of autoreactive T cells occur in an IL-7-rich environment, researchers explored the possibility that IL-7 may affect the function of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

Ex Vivo Enzymatic Treatment of Aged CD4 T Cells Restores Cognate T Cell Helper Function and Enhances Antibody Production in Mice
By using an in vivo model of the immune response based on adoptive transfer of CD4 T cells from pigeon cytochrome C-specific transgenic H-2(k/k) TCR-Vα113 CD4+ mice to syngeneic hosts, the authors demonstrated that aging diminishes CD28 costimulatory signals in CD4 T cells. They also showed that the age-related decline in CD4 cognate helper function for IgG production and long-term humoral immunity can also be restored by O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase treatment of CD4 T cells prior to adoptive transfer. [J Immunol] Abstract

Type II Collagen Induces Peripheral Tolerance in BALB/c Mice via the Generation of CD8+ T Regulatory Cells
Researchers performed functional local adoptive transfer assays to examine the regulatory roles of spleen cells, T cells, and CD8+ T cells in the specific immune regulation induced by type-II collagen injection into the anterior chamber of the eye. [PLoS One] Full Article

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Have a Cytokine-Producing Capacity to Enhance ICOS Ligand-Mediated IL-10 Production during T-Cell Priming
Researchers found that either IFN-α or IL-6 enhanced the plasmacytoid dendritic cell- or inducible co-stimulatory ligand (ICOS-L)-driven generation of IL-10-producing T-cells from naive CD4+ T-cells and their regulatory functions. [Int Immunol] Abstract

PneumaCult™-ALI Medium for Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Watch the Video

REVIEWS
Guarding the Perimeter: Protection of the Mucosa by Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells
How tissue-resident T cells are retained in a single anatomic location where they can promote immunity is beginning to be defined. Here, researchers review current knowledge of the mechanisms that help establish and maintain these regional lymphocytes in the mucosal tissues and discuss relevant data that enhance the understanding of the contribution of these lymphocyte populations to protective immunity against infectious diseases. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract
SCIENCE NEWS
Preclinical Data Support Potential Combinations for Allovectin® with Emerging Immunotherapies
Vical Incorporated announced the release of animal data at a melanoma conference documenting the benefits of combining the company’s Allovectin® immunotherapy with anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PD-L1 antibodies, which are emerging immunotherapies for metastatic melanoma. [Press release from Vical Incorporated discussing research presented at the 9th International Congress of the Society for Melanoma Research, Hollywood] Press Release
INDUSTRY NEWS

DioGenix and Fast Forward Collaborate to Develop Blood-Based Molecular Diagnostic for Multiple Sclerosis
DioGenix, Inc. announced an alliance with Fast Forward, a subsidiary of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, to develop a novel blood test for multiple sclerosis (MS). Fast Forward will provide up to $500,000 as part of a Sponsored Research Agreement that will enable DioGenix to expand an ongoing clinical trial of its MS diagnostic, MSPrecise™, a proprietary next-generation sequencing assay that measures changes to the adaptive immune system by analyzing B cells isolated from cerebral spinal fluid. [DioGenix, Inc.]
Press Release

Oncobiologics and Boston Oncology Team Up to Deliver Biosimilar Therapies to Middle East and North African Markets
Oncobiologics, Inc. and Boston Oncology, LLC announced a strategic partnership that will allow Boston Oncology to license, manufacture, and commercialize four of Oncobiologics’ biosimilar therapies for cancer and immunological disease in the Middle East and North African regions. [Oncobiologics, Inc.]
Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS
NEW 5th Immunotherapeutics & Immunomonitoring Conference
January 31-February 1, 2013
San Diego, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Quality Control Operations Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Product Manager – Hematopoietic (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Product Quality Scientist (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist – Endothelial Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (San Raffaele Scientific Institute)

Postdoctoral & PhD Student Positions – NK Cell-Based Anti-Cancer Immunotherapies (Medical University of Vienna)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Department of Microbiology and Immunology (Penn State University College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Stem Cells (Cancer Institute of New Jersey)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Singapore Immunology Network [A*STAR])

Research Associate in T Cell Immunology (Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Neuroscience)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology)


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