Volume 4.35 | Sep 14

Immune Regulation News 4.35 September 14, 2012
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Compromised Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Induces Adaptive Immune Compensation that Protects from Colitis
Mice lacking junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A, encoded by F11r) exhibit enhanced intestinal epithelial permeability, bacterial translocation, and elevated colonic lymphocyte numbers, yet do not develop colitis. Elimination of T cell subsets and cytokine analyses revealed a protective role for TGF-β-producing CD4+ T cells in F11r-/- mice. Additionally, loss of JAM-A resulted in elevated mucosal and serum IgA that was dependent upon CD4+ T cells and TGF-β. [Immunity] Abstract | Press Release

Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Adipose Tissue Invariant NKT Cells Protect against Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorder through Regulatory Cytokine Production
Researchers showed that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, previously thought to be rare in humans, were highly enriched in human and murine adipose tissue, and that as adipose tissue expanded in obesity, iNKT cells were depleted, correlating with proinflammatory macrophage infiltration. [Immunity]
Abstract | Press Release

Neuropilin-1 Distinguishes Natural and Inducible Regulatory T Cells among Regulatory T Cell Subsets In Vivo
Using a combination of novel TCR transgenic mice with a defined self-antigen specificity and conventional mouse models, the authors demonstrated that a cell surface molecule, neuropilin-1, is expressed at high levels on natural regulatory T (nT reg) cells and can be used to separate nT reg versus inducible T reg cells in certain physiological settings. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Alveolar Epithelial Cells Orchestrate DC Function in Murine Viral Pneumonia
Data revealed that GM-CSF-dependent cross-talk between influenza virus (IV)-infected alveolar epithelial cells and CD103+ DCs is crucial for effective viral clearance and recovery from injury, which has potential implications for GM-CSF treatment in severe IV pneumonia. [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

IFNγR Signaling Mediates Alloreactive T Cell Trafficking and GvHD
Investigators showed that interferon gamma receptor deficient (IFNγR-/-) allogeneic Tconv, which possess normal allo-reactivity and cytotoxicity, induce significantly less GvHD than wild-type Tconv. [Blood] Abstract

T Cells Engineered with a T Cell Receptor against the Prostate Antigen TARP Specifically Kill HLA-A2+ Prostate and Breast Cancer Cells
To produce genetically engineered T cells directed against prostate and breast cancer cells, researchers cloned the T-cell receptor recognizing the HLA-A2-restricted T-cell receptor γ-chain alternate reading-frame protein (TARP)4-13 epitope. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Single-Cell Analysis of Early B-Lymphocyte Development Suggests Independent Regulation of Lineage Specification and Commitment In Vivo
To better understand the process of B-lymphocyte lineage restriction, scientists investigated molecular and functional properties in early B-lineage cells from Pax-5-deficient animals crossed to a B-lineage-restricted reporter mouse, allowing them to identify B-lineage-specified progenitors independently of conventional surface markers. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Myeloid Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Prevents Airway Allergy in Mice through Macrophage-Mediated Immunoregulation
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-dependent interleukin-10 secretion is required for interstitial macrophages to block allergen-induced dendritic cell activation and consequently for preventing the development of allergen-specific T-helper cell responses upon allergen exposure. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

CD11c+ Cells Are Required for Antigen-Induced Increase of Mast Cells in the Lung
Data suggested that Ag challenge stimulates CD11c+ cells to produce cytokines and/or chemokines required for VCAM-1 upregulation on the lung endothelium, which in turn is crucial for the Ag-induced mast cell progenitor recruitment and the increase in mast cell numbers. [J Immunol] Abstract

Autophagy Regulates IL-23 Secretion and Innate T Cell Responses through Effects on IL-1 Secretion
Data demonstrated that autophagy has a potentially pivotal role to play in the induction and regulation of inflammatory responses by innate immune cells, largely driven by IL-1 and its consequential effects on IL-23 secretion. [J Immunol] Abstract

Kinetics of the Innate Immune Response to Yersinia pestis after Intradermal Infection in a Mouse Model
A hallmark of Yersinia pestis infection is a delayed inflammatory response early in infection. Researchers used an intradermal model of infection to study early innate immune cell recruitment. [Infect Immun] Abstract

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REVIEWS

IL-17-Producing γδ T Cells and Innate Lymphoid Cells
While CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are important sources of IL-17, recent evidence has suggested that γδ T cells and a number of families of innate lymphoid cells can secrete IL-17 and related cytokines. Evidence is emerging that these newly recognized sources of IL-17 play both pathological and protective roles in inflammatory diseases as discussed in this article. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Germinal Center Kinases in Immune Regulation
Recent studies have shown that germinal center kinases (GCKs) are participants in both adaptive and innate immune regulation. This review stresses the progresses in research of GCKs relevant to the immune system. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

SCIENCE NEWS

Sangamo BioSciences Announces Presentation of Clinical Data from ZFP Therapeutic® for HIV/AIDS
Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. announced that data from its Phase I clinical programs to develop SB-728-T. SB-728-T treatment resulted in an unprecedented and durable increase in CD4+ cells. Analysis showed that this was primarily due to the expansion of CD4+ T-cell types that are vital for the successful reconstitution of the immune system in HIV-infected individuals – the central and transitional memory cells. [Press release from Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. discussing research presented at the 52nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), San Francisco] Press Release

Skin and Immune System Influence Salt Storage and Regulate Blood Pressure
Researchers discovered that macrophages recognize high sodium levels in the skin and activate a gene, which in turn ensures that the vascular endothelial growth factor is released in large amounts into the skin. If this factor is released in higher amounts, lymphatic vessels grow into the skin and ensure that the stored sodium can be transported away. [Press release from the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine Berlin-Buch discussing research presented at the 1st ECRC “Franz-Volhard” Symposium, Berlin-Buch]
Press Release

INDUSTRY NEWS

New Grant Awards Aim to Prevent Autoimmune Diseases
Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason recently received two major grant awards to explore how to regulate the immune system, as part of a nationwide collaborative program to prevent autoimmune diseases. [Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason] Press Release

Opexa Initiates Late Stage Clinical Study of Tcelna in Patients with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS)
Opexa Therapeutics, Inc., a company developing Tcelna™, a novel T-cell therapy for multiple sclerosis, announced the initiation of a Phase IIb clinical trial of Tcelna in patients with SPMS. [Opexa Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Coronado Biosciences Granted First U.S. Patent Covering CNDO-109
Coronado Biosciences, Inc. announced the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has granted a key patent for CNDO-109, licensed by Coronado Biosciences from the University College London Business PLC, for its natural killer cell therapy program. [Coronado Biosciences, Inc.] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

Obama and Romney Tackle 14 Top Science Questions
Scientific American partnered with grassroots organization ScienceDebate.org to encourage the two main presidential candidates – Barack Obama and Mitt Romney – to answer 14 questions on some of the biggest scientific and technological challenges facing the nation. [Presidential Candidates, United States]
Press Release

U.K. Devotes £10 Million to Open Access Shift
Following up on recommendations to make more research freely available to scientists and the public, the U.K. government pledged £10 million toward making scientific papers open access. [U.K. Government, United Kingdom] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS
NEW Fraunhofer Life Science Symposium Leipzig 2012
November 29-30, 2012
Leipzig, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Research Technologist – Media Development (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Research Technologist – Research and Development (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Quality Control Operations Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Scientist – Mesenchymal Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (San Raffaele Scientific Institute)


Postdoctoral Positions – Immunity and Inflammation (CNRS & University of Toulouse, France)


Research Associate – Quality Assurance (University of California)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Singapore Immunology Network [A*STAR])


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