Volume 4.22 | Jun 15

Immune Regulation News 4.22 June 15, 2012
     In this issue: Publications | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY

Dietary-Fat-Induced Taurocholic Acid Promotes Pathobiont Expansion and Colitis in Il10−/− Mice
Researchers showed that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milk-derived) fat, but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil) fat, changes the conditions for microbial assemblage and promotes the expansion of a low-abundance, sulphite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia. This was associated with a pro-inflammatory T helper type 1 immune response and increased incidence of colitis in genetically susceptible Il10−/−, but not wild-type mice. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release

Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies

PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

T Cell Antigen Receptor Clonotypes Modulate the Protective Effect of HLA Class I Molecules in HIV-1 Infection
Researchers found that human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-B*27-restricted CD8+ T cells in people able to control infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and those who progress to disease after infection with HIV-1 differed in their ability to inhibit viral replication through targeting of the immunodominant epitope of group-associated antigen of HIV-1. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

The Adaptor SAP Controls NK Cell Activation by Regulating the Enzymes Vav-1 and SHIP-1 and by Enhancing Conjugates with Target Cells
The adaptor SAP, mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, has critical roles in multiple immune cell types. Among these, SAP is essential for the ability of natural killer (NK) cells to eliminate abnormal hematopoietic cells. Herein, researchers elucidated the molecular and cellular basis of this activity. [Immunity]
Abstract | Press Release

Timing and Magnitude of Type I Interferon Responses by Distinct Sensors Impact CD8 T Cell Exhaustion and Chronic Viral Infection
Using acute and chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection models, researchers determined that plasmacytoid dendritic cells transiently produce Type I interferon that minimally impacts CD8+T cell responses and viral persistence. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Press Release

Toll-Like Receptor 7 Is Required for Effective Adaptive Immune Responses that Prevent Persistent Virus Infection
Researchers observed that TLR7-/- mice infected with LCMV Cl 13 remained viremic throughout life from defects in the adaptive antiviral immune response; notably, diminished T cell function, exacerbated T cell exhaustion, decreased plasma cell maturation, and negligible antiviral antibody production. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Press Release

Contrasting Acute Graft-versus-Host-Disease Effects of Tim-3/Galectin-9 Pathway Blockade Dependent Upon the Presence of Donor Regulatory T Cells
These studies show that, whereas the absence of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3)/galectin-9 pathway interactions augments systemic graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD), concurrent donor T-regulatory cell depletion paradoxically and surprisingly inhibits GvHD. [Blood] Abstract

Chemokine Receptor CCR1 Antagonist CCX354-C Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis: CARAT-2, a Randomized, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial
CCX354-C is a specific, orally administered antagonist of the C-C chemokine receptor 1, which regulates migration of monocytes and macrophages to synovial tissue. This clinical trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of CCX354-C in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [Ann Rheum Dis] Abstract | Press Release

Human Breast Milk and Antiretrovirals Dramatically Reduce Oral HIV-1 Transmission in BLT Humanized Mice
Researchers established that reconstitution of the oral cavity and upper gastrointestinal tract of humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) mice with human leukocytes, including the human cell types important for mucosal HIV transmission (i.e., dendritic cells, macrophages and CD4+ T cells), renders them susceptible to oral transmission of cell-free and cell-associated HIV. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Efficacy of Adjuvant Immunotherapy with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells in Patients with Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer
Researchers aimed to determine the long-term efficacy of adjuvant immunotherapy with autologous cytokine-induced killer cells for locally advanced gastric cancer patients. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Full Article

Mast Cells Impair the Development of Protective Anti-Tumor Immunity
These studies are the first to reveal that mast cells impair both regional adaptive immune responses and responses within the tumor microenvironment to diminish protective anti-tumor immunity. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract

Whitepaper: Automated Cell Isolation Enables More Relevant HIV Models

INDUSTRY NEWS

Osiris Receives Second Approval for Life-Saving Stem Cell Drug; Prochymal Granted Marketing Consent by New Zealand
Osiris Therapeutics, Inc. announced that it has received consent from New Zealand to market its first-in-class stem cell therapy Prochymal® (remestemcel-L), for the treatment of acute graft-vs-host disease in children. With this decision New Zealand joins Canada, which last month became the world’s first internationally recognized regulatory authority to grant approval to a stem cell drug. [Osiris Therapeutics, Inc.]
Press Release


JDRF and Novo Nordisk Establish R&D Collaboration in Type 1 Diabetes
To address the underlying autoimmune process that is central to type 1 diabetes, JDRF and Novo Nordisk are partnering to discover and develop novel immunotherapies to prevent, treat, and help cure the disease. [Novo Nordisk A/S] Press Release


IU Role in Human Microbiome Project Exposes Battle History between Bacteria, Viruses in Human Body
An Indiana University (IU) team of researchers has conducted the most in-depth and diverse genetic analysis of the defense systems that trillions of micro-organisms in the human body use to fend off viruses. The work is among a collection of 16 research papers released today by the Human Microbiome Project Consortium, a National Institutes of Health-led effort to map the normal microbial make-up of healthy humans. [Indiana University] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW IMMUNOGENECITY for Biopharmaceuticals & Biosimilars Asia
October 15-17, 2012
Singapore, Singapore

NEW
The Jackson Laboratory: Modeling Human Disease in Immunodeficient Mice
June 21, 1:00PM (ET in US)
Webinar

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Research Associate – Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Research Technologist – Contract Assay Services (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Research Technologist – Media Development (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Scientist – Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist – Epithelial Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Scientist – hPSC Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Scientist – Mesenchymal Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Protein Chemistry/Immuno-Receptor Biology (Genentech)

Postdoctoral Position – Antigen Recognition by Human T Lymphocytes (Singapore Immunology Network)

Faculty Openings – Molecular Microbiology and Immunology (University of Vienna)


Postdoctoral Positions – Immunology (La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology) 


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