Volume 4.04 | Feb 3

Immune Regulation News 4.04, February 3, 2012
     In this issue: Publications | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Stealthy Leprosy Pathogen Evades Critical Vitamin D-Dependent Immune Response
A team of scientists has found that the pathogen that causes leprosy has a remarkable ability to avoid the human immune system by inhibiting the antimicrobial responses important to our defenses. [Press release from the University of California, Los Angeles discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine]
Press Release | Abstract

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by Impact Factor of the Journal)

Inflammasome-Mediated Dysbiosis Regulates Progression of NAFLD and Obesity
Here, researchers show that the NLRP6 and NLRP3 inflammasomes and the effector protein IL-18 negatively regulate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis progression, as well as multiple aspects of metabolic syndrome via modulation of the gut microbiota. [Nature] Abstract

Regional Neural Activation Defines a Gateway for Autoreactive T Cells to Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier
Using a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, researchers show that autoreactive T cells access the central nervous system via the fifth lumbar spinal cord. [Cell] Abstract

Activation of Autophagy by Inflammatory Signals Limits Interleukin 1ß Production by Targeting Ubiquitinated Inflammasomes for Destruction
Here researchers show that the induction of AIM2 or NLRP3 inflammasomes in macrophages triggered activation of the G protein RalB and autophagosome formation. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Dectin-1 Is an Extracellular Pathogen Sensor for the Induction and Processing of IL-1β via a Noncanonical Caspase-8 Inflammasome
Here scientists identify a previously unknown role for dectin-1 in the activation of a noncanonical caspase-8 inflammasome in response to fungi and mycobacteria. Dectin-1 induced both the production and maturation of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) through signaling routes mediated by the kinase Syk. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Preexisting Influenza-Specific CD4+ T Cells Correlate with Disease Protection Against Influenza Challenge in Humans
Researchers conducted influenza infection studies in healthy volunteers with no detectable antibodies to the challenge viruses H3N2 or H1N1. These researchers mapped T cell responses to influenza before and during infection. [Nat Med] Abstract

Interleukin 23 Production by Intestinal CD103+CD11b+ Dendritic Cells in Response to Bacterial Flagellin Enhances Mucosal Innate Immune Defense
By using conditional depletion of lamina propria dendritic cell (LPDC) subsets, researchers demonstrated that CD103+CD11b+ LPDCs, but not monocyte-derived CD103CD11b+ LPDCs, expressed high amounts of IL-23 after bacterial flagellin administration and drove IL-22-dependent RegIIIγ production. [Immunity] Abstract

Transforming Growth Factor Beta-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1)-Dependent Checkpoint in the Survival of Dendritic Cells Promotes Immune Homeostasis and Function
Combining dendritic cell (DC)-specific and -inducible deletion systems, investigators report that TAK1 is an essential regulator of DC survival and immune system homeostasis and function. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Memory B cells in the Lung Participate in Protective Humoral Immune Responses to Pulmonary Influenza Virus Reinfection
Here, researchers show the phenotypes and protective functions of virus-binding memory B cells that persist in the lung following pulmonary infection with influenza virus. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

IL-7Rα Deficiency in p53null Mice Exacerbates Thymocyte Telomere Erosion and Lymphomagenesis
This study underscores a novel function of interleukin-7 (IL-7)/IL-7 receptor (IL-7Rα) during T-cell development in regulating telomere integrity via protection of telomere 1 expression and provides new insights into cytokine-mediated survival signals and T-cell lymphomagenesis. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentially Mediate Regulatory T Cells and Conventional Effector T Cells to Protect Fully Allogeneic Islet Grafts in Mice
Researchers investigated the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on effector T cells and regulatory T cells, and the molecular mechanisms involved in the distinct regulation of these two cell populations by MSCs in vivo and in vitro. [Diabetologia] Abstract

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INDUSTRY NEWS

Immunomedics, Inc. Awarded Broad Patent for Anti-CD20 and Anti-CD22 Combination Therapy
Immunomedics, Inc. announced the issuance of US patent 8,105,596, “Immunotherapy of B-cell malignancies using anti-CD22 antibodies.” [Immunomedics, Inc.] Press Release

IMMUNE Pharmaceuticals Granted US $1 Million by the Office of the Chief Scientist in Israel
IMMUNE Pharmaceuticals announced that the Office of the Chief Scientist granted US $1 million to support two drug development programs: US $605,000 for Antibody Nanoparticle Conjugates platform and US $395,000 for Phase II clinical trials with Bertilimumab. [IMMUNE Pharmaceuticals] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Human Anti-Mesothelin Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Human Cancers (FR Doc No: 2012-2213) [National Insitutes of Health, United States]

Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings (FR Doc No: 2012-2322) [National Institutes of Health, United States]

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology: Mutations, Malignancy and Memory – Antibodies and Immunity
March 18-22, 2012
Boston, United States

NEW Drug Discovery World Asia
March 19-22, 2012
Singapore, Singapore

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Research and Development Technologist, hPSC Media (STEMCELL Technologies)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies)

Business Analyst – Product Management (STEMSOFT Software)  

Research Technologist, Manufacturing Sciences (STEMCELL Technologies)

Immunology Investigator (BloodCenter of Wisconsin)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Program in Children’s Regenerative Medicine (The University of Texas Medical School at Houston)

Postdoctoral Positions in Allergy and Immunology (University of Southern California)

Postdoctoral Position – Department of Immunology (University Hospital Jena)


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