Volume 3.46 | Dec 16

Immune Regulation News 3.46, December 16, 2011
     In this issue: Publications | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
IL-10 Elicits IFNγ-Dependent Tumor Immune Surveillance
Researchers demonstrate that IL-10 induces several essential mechanisms for effective antitumor immune surveillance: infiltration and activation of intratumoral tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, expression of the Th1 cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ) and granzymes in CD8+ T cells, and intratumoral antigen presentation molecules. [Cancer Cell] Abstract

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by Impact Factor of the Journal)
Asymmetric B Cell Division in the Germinal Center Reaction
Here, researchers show that germinal center B lymphocytes asymmetrically segregate the transcriptional regulator Bcl6, the receptor for interleukin-21, and the ancestral polarity protein atypical PKC to one side of the plane of division, generating unequal inheritance of fate-altering molecules by daughter cells. [Science] Abstract

Therapeutic Blockade of PD-L1 and LAG-3 Rapidly Clears Established Blood-Stage Plasmodium Infection
Here investigators show that infection of humans with Plasmodium falciparum resulted in higher expression of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 associated with T cell dysfunction. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Are Crucial for the Initiation of Inflammation and T Cell Immunity In Vivo
Here researchers report a critical role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in the regulation of inflammation and T cell immunity in vivo by using gene-targeted mice with a deficiency of Siglec-H and conditional ablation of pDCs. [Immunity] Abstract

Th17 Cells Induce Ectopic Lymphoid Follicles in Central Nervous System Tissue Inflammation
Here scientists showed that in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Th17 cells specifically induced ectopic lymphoid follicles in the central nervous system. [Immunity] Abstract

The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Regulates Gut Immunity through Modulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells
Here, researchers have shown that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor plays an essential role in RORγt+ innate lymphoid cell maintenance and function. [Immunity] Abstract

Cytosolic RIG-I–Like Helicases Act as Negative Regulators of Sterile Inflammation in the CNS
Results identify RIG-I–like helicases (RLHs) as negative regulators of TH1 and TH17 responses in the CNS, demonstrate a protective role of the RLH pathway for brain inflammation, and establish oligonucleotide ligands of RLHs as potential therapeutics for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Antigen-Specific CD4 T-Cell Help Rescues Exhausted CD8 T Cells during Chronic Viral Infection
Whether function can be restored in already exhausted CD8 T cells by providing CD4 T-cell help at a later time remains unexplored. In this study, researchers used a mouse model of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection to address this question. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Natural Killer Cell Activation Enhances Immune Pathology and Promotes Chronic Infection by Limiting CD8+ T-Cell Immunity
Here investigators demonstrate that natural killer cells have a negative impact on the development of T-cell immunity by using the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Polyfunctional Responses by Human T Cells Result from Sequential Release of Cytokines
Here, scientists used serial, time-dependent, single-cell analysis of primary human T cells to resolve the temporal dynamics of cytokine secretion from individual cells after activation ex vivo. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Modulation of Autoimmune Demyelination by Laquinimod via Induction of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Researchers investigated the effect of laquinimod in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis using a conditional brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) knockout strain lacking BDNF expression in myeloid cells and T cells. [Am J Pathol] Abstract | Press Release

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SCIENCE NEWS
When Standard Treatment Fails: Jefferson to Start Unique Immunotherapy for Brain Tumor Patients
Physicians are tackling a particularly aggressive brain cancer that even surgery, chemotherapy and radiation often fail to treat with a promising new immunotherapy to attack a patient’s tumor with their own cancer cells. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS

The CIHR Human Immunology Network to Accelerate Immune System Discoveries
Seven universities, led by The University of Western Ontario, have been awarded a $600,000 catalyst grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) to create a national network to promote and enhance research on the body’s immune system. [The University of Western Ontario] Press Release

ImmusanT Raises $20 Million in Series A Financing to Advance Immunotherapeutic and Diagnostic for Celiac Disease
ImmusanT, Inc. announced it has raised $20 million in Series A financing from Vatera Healthcare Partners LLC to advance development of the biotechnology company’s immunotherapeutic vaccine Nexvax2®, companion diagnostic and monitoring tool for celiac disease. [PR Newswire] Press Release

Genentech Initiates First-In-Human Study with NovImmune’s Anti-IL17 Antibody
NovImmune announced that Genentech initiated a First-in-Human study with anti-IL-17 (NI-1401, RG7624), a fully human monoclonal antibody designed to specifically and selectively bind to the human IL-17 family of cytokines. [NovImmune] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS
NEW Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology: Innate Immunity – Sensing the Microbes and Damage Signals
March 4-9, 2012
Keystone, United States

Visit
our events page to see a complete list of events in the immune regulation community.
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
Research and Development Technologist, hPSC Media (STEMCELL Technologies)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies)

Business Analyst – Product Management (STEMSOFT Software)  

Research Technologist, Manufacturing Sciences (STEMCELL Technologies)

Postdoctoral Fellow in Immunology: T Cell Development and Migration (University of Chicago)

Postdoctoral Fellow (University of Cincinnati)

Assistant Professor – Immunology (University of Saskatchewan)

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